ADDRESS (NETWORK ADDRESS)
Internet site addresses come in two forms: as a set of numbers such as 18.104.22.168 and as alpha numerical such as giasbm01.vsnl.net.in (these can represent the same address, and either can be used, e.g., Telnet). (2) An individual’s email address, e.g., at this site, Internet for You may look like firstname.lastname@example.org.
(American Standard Code for Information Interchange) – This is a de facto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by the computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 ASCII codes by a seven digit binary number 0000000 through 1111111.
EBCDIC is an IBM code for representing characters as numbers. Although it is widely used on large IBM computers, most other computers, including PCs and Macintoshes, use ASCII codes.
When transmitting data, the number of times the medium’s state changes per second. For example a 14,400 baud modem changes the signal it sends on the phone line 14,400 times per second. Since each change in state can correspond to multiple bits of data, the actual bit rate of data transfer may exceed the baud rate.
(Binary Digit) A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second. See also: Bandwidth, Bps, Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte.
BITS PER SECOND (BPS)
The speed at which bits are transmitted over a communication medium.
A set of bits that represent a single character, usually there are 8 bits in a byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is being made.
How much “stuff “ you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bit-per-second. A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 15,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full screen video will require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression.
The term originated by author William Gibson in his novel “Neuromancer”, the word cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of information resources available through computer networks.
A cookie, also known as an HTTP cookie, web cookie, Internet cookie, or browser cookie, is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored in a user’s web browser while the user is browsing that website. Every time the user loads the website, the browser sends the cookie back to the server to notify the website of the user’s previous activity.
Real-time communication between two users via computer. Once a chat has been initiated, either user can enter text by typing on the keyboard and the entered text will appear on the other user’s monitor. Most networks and online services offer a chat feature.
A organization to provide free Internet access to people in a certain area, usually through public libraries.
Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network. It is quite common to have one host machine provide several services, such as WWW and USENET.
Sometimes called a “dotted quad”. A unique number consisting of four parts separated by dots, e.g. 22.214.171.124 is a IP number of one of the servers. Every machine that is on the Internet has an unique IP number – if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.
(Integrated Services Digital Network) – Basically a way to move more data over existing regular phone lines. ISDN is only slowly becoming available in Mumbai. It allows a very large bandwidth for transmission of data.
The International Organization for Standardization; An organization that has defined a different set of network protocols, called the ISO/OSI protocols. In theory, the ISO/OSI protocols will eventually replace the Internet protocols. When and if this will actually happen is a hotly debated topic.
INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER (ISP)
An organization that provides connections to a part of Internet. If you want to connect you company’s network, or even your personal computer, to the Internet, you have to talk to a “service provider”. Also commonly known as ISP (Internet Service Provider). E.g. Airtel, MTNL etc.
A thousand bytes. Actually, usually, 1024 bytes.
A permanently-connected private telephone line between two locations. Leased lines are typically used to connect a moderate-sized local network to an Internet service provider.
(Modulator, DEModulator) – a piece of equipment that connects a computer to a data transmission line (typically a telephone line of some sort). Presently the modems transfer data at speeds ranging from 1200 to 33,600 bits per second. There are also modems providing higher speeds and supporting other media. These are used for special purposes – for example, to connect a large local network to its network provider over a leased line.
(Network Information Center) – Generally, any office that handles information for a network a network. The most famous of these on the Internet is the Inter NIC, which is where new domain names are registered.
(Network File System) – A set of protocols that allows you to use files on other network machines as if they were local. So rather than using FTP to transfer a file to your local computer, you can read it, write it or edit it on the remote computer – using the same commands that you’d use locally. NFS was originally developed by SUN Microsystem, Inc. and is currently in widespread use.
Anytime you connected two or more computers together so that they can share resources you have a computer network. Connect two or more network together you have internet.
Internet standard-monger’s lingo for a set of 8 bits, i.e., a byte.
A bundle of data. On the Internet, data is broken up into small chunks, called “packet”; each packet traverses the network independently. Packet sizes can vary from roughly 40 to 32,000 bytes, depending on network hardware media, but the packets are normally less than 1500 bytes long.
A code used to gain access to a locked system. Good passwords contain letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as “shanti8”. A good password might be: Albert12@45$
(Point to Point Protocol) – most well known as a protocol that allows a computer to use a regular phone line and a modem to make a TCP/IP connection and thus be really and truly on the Internet. PPP is gradually replacing SLIP for this purpose.
An automatized way to index and find documents on the internet. Search engines will “crawl,” or explore, the internet and index every file they find. Examples of search engines are www.google.com and www.bing.com.
The command and program used to login from one Internet site to another. The Telnet command/program gets you to the “login” prompt of another host.
(The User Datagram Protocol) – Another of the protocols on which the Internet is based. For the techies, UDP is a connectionless unreliable protocol. If you’re not techie don’t let the word “unreliable” worry you.
A world wide system of discussion groups, with comments passed among hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all Usenet machines are on the Internet, may be half. Usenet is completely decentralized, with over 15,000 discussion areas, called news groups.