Some safeguards or solutions to protect a computer system from accidental access are described below:
1. Install Anti-Virus Software
Ensure that reputable anti-virus software is installed on all computers. This should include all servers, PCs and laptops. If employees use computers at home for business use or to remotely access the network, these PCs should also have anti-virus software installed. Everyday new computer viruses are being released and it is essential that businesses are protected from these viruses by keeping the anti-virus software up to date. If possible, companies should look at policies whereby computers that do not have the most up to date anti-virus software installed are not allowed to connect to the network.
2. Employ a firewall to protect networks
As computer viruses can spread by means other than email, it is important that unwanted traffic is blocked from entering the network by using a firewall. For users that use computers for business away from the protection of the company’s network, such as home PCs or laptops, a personal firewall should be installed to ensure the computer is protected.
A method for keeping a network secure. It can be implemented in a single router that filters out unwanted packets, or it may use a combination of technologies in routers and hosts. Firewalls are widely used to give users access to the Internet in a secure fashion as well as to separate a company’s public Web server from its internal network. They are also used to keep internal network segments secure. For example, a research or accounting subnet might be vulnerable to snooping from within. Following are the types of techniques used individually or in combination to provide firewall protection.
3. Filter all email traffic
All incoming and outgoing email should be filtered for computer viruses. This filter should ideally be at the perimeter of the network to prevent computer viruses. E-mails with certain file attachments commonly used by computer viruses to spread themselves, such as .EXE, .COM and .SCR files, should also be prevented from entering the network.
4. Scan Internet Downloads
Ensure that all files downloaded from the Internet are scanned for computer viruses before being used. Ideally this scanning should be done from one central point on the network to ensure that all files are properly scanned.
5. Implement a vulnerability management program
Most computer viruses and worms try to exploit bugs and vulnerabilities within the operating system and applications that companies use. New vulnerabilities are introduced into networks every day, be that from installing new software and services, making changes to existing systems or simply from previously undiscovered vulnerabilities coming to light. It is important to regularly review your network and the applications running on it for new vulnerabilities. Any discovered vulnerabilities should be rated and prioritised regarding their criticality and the potential business impact they could have. Once this has been done, a plan on how to manage those vulnerabilities, either by patching, upgrading, or managing the vulnerability using tools such as firewalls or Intrusion Detection Systems should be put into place.
6. Develop an Information Security Policy
The creation and publication of an Information Security Policy is key to ensuring that information security receives the profile it requires in the organisation and is the first critical step in securing the company’s systems and data. It is important that senior management support the Information Security Policy and that all users are made aware of their roles and responsibilities under this policy.
A password is an unspaced sequence of characters used to determine that a computer user requesting access to a computer system is really that particular user.
- strong password : Term used to describe a password that is an effective password that would be difficult to break. Often a strong password has between six and ten characters (the more the better), numbers, other characters, and both upper and lowercase characters. Below is an example of a strong password.
- Weak password : A password that is not an effective password because it’s easy to remember. Names, birth dates, phone numbers, and easily guessable words are considered weak passwords. Below is an example of a weak password.
Many websites use certificates or digital certificates to define their security and identity, so that computers visiting the sites know the sites are legitimate and feature proper security. These certificates must be obtained and from the proper organizations, as well as registered with them. They also expire and must be renewed to remain valid. A web browser may deny access to a website or at least warn the user when a website’s certificate has expired and the identity or security of the site cannot be verified.
9. Digital Signature
Alternatively referred to as digitally signed, a digital signature is a mathematical scheme used to verify the authenticity of a digital document or message. They are used when determining authenticity and avoiding tampering are important, such as in financial transactions. Digital signatures are often used as a means to implement electronic signatures that are encrypted which allows for both authentication and non-repudiation (the signer cannot deny signing a document while claiming his/her private key has not been compromised).