Agriculture


⇒ The agriculture sector of India occupies almost 43 per cent of India’s geographical area.

Importance of Agriculture in Indian Economy

⇒ It is the largest contributor to India’s GDP.

⇒ Provides livelihood to 65-70% of total population and employment to 58.4% of total work force.

⇒ Importance source of raw materials to large and small scale industries.

⇒ Agriculture accounts for 14.7% of total export earnings.

⇒ Agriculture and related products contribute to 38% in total exports of the country.

National Agricultural Policy

  1. The major features of the new agricultural policy are:
  2. Over 4% annual growth rate aimed over next two decades.
  3. Greater private sector participation through contract farming.
  4. Price protection for farmers.
  5. National agricultural insurance scheme to be launched.
  6. Dismantling of restrictions on movement of agricultural commodities throughout the country.
  7. Rational utilization of country’s water resources for optimum use of irrigation potential.
  8. High priority to development of animal husbandry,poultry,dairy and aquaculture.
  9. Capital inflow and assured markets for crop production.
  10. Exemption from payment of capital gains tax on compulsory acquisition of agricultural land.
  11. Minimize fluctuations in commodity prices.
  12. Continuous monitoring of international prices.
  13. Plant varieties to be protected through a legislation.
  14. Adequate and timely supply of quality inputs to farmers.
  15. High priority to rural electrification.
  16. Setting up of agro-processing units and creation of off-farm employment in rural areas.

Minimum Support Price for Agricultural Products

⇒ Government has been announcing MSP of 24 major crops on the basis of recommendations by Agriculture Cost and Price Commission (ACPC). Market price of the crop never comes down the MSP.

Objectives:

⇒ To prevent fall in prices in case of overproduction.• To protect interests of the farmers.

Food grains procurement and Stocks in India

⇒ Food grains procurement by government serves two purposes- providing support price to the farmers and building up public stocks of food grains. It is carried by Food Corporation of India (FCI).

⇒ Food stocks are maintained by Central Government for:

⇒ Meeting the prescribed minimum buffer stock norms for food security.

⇒ Monthly release of food grains for supply through public distribution system.

⇒ Market intervention to augment supply so as to help moderate the open market prices.

Green Revolution in India

⇒ The term ‘green revolution’ was given by American scientist- Dr.William Gande.

⇒ The credit of Green Revolution goes to Dr.Norman Borlaug(Mexico) and Dr. M.S. Swaminathan in India.

⇒ In India, it is associated with the use of high yielding variety seeds (HYVS), chemical fertilizers and new technology which led to sharp rise in agricultural productions during the middle of 1960s.

Second Green Revolution in India

⇒ Strategy adopted in Eleventh Plan.

⇒ It aimed at efficient use of resources and conservation of soil, water and ecology on a sustainable basis and in a holistic framework.

White Revolution and Operation Flood in India

  • India stands first in the world in the milk production.
  • Buffaloes, Cows and Goats contribute 50 %, 46% and 4% respectively in total milk production of the country.
  • Dr. Varghese Kurien is the pioneer of operation flood in India.

Other Revolutions

  1. Yellow Revolution Oil Seeds
  2. White Revolution Milk
  3. Blue Revolution Fish
  4. Pink Revolution Shrimp
  5. Grey Revolution Fertiliser
  6. Golden Revolution Horticulture