Major Industries in India
Classification of Industries
A. On the basis of source of raw materials
- Agro based industry (cotton textile, jute textile and sugar).
- Mineral based industry (iron and steel, machine tools and aluminium).
B. On the basis of main role played by the industry
- Basic industries: these are the industries whose finished products are used as the raw materials for other industries.
- Consumer goods industries: these are the industries whose finished products are directlyused for con-sumption by consumers.
C. On the basis of capital investment
- Small scale industry
- Large scale industry
D. On the basis of ownership
- Public sector undertaking (SAIL, HAL, BEML)
- Private sector undertaking (TISCO, Mahindra and Mahindra, Birla Cement)
- Joint sector undertaking (Oil India Limited)
- Co-operative industries (Sugar Industry in Maharashtra)
E. Based on the bulk of raw materials and finished products
- Heavy industries
- Light industries
In India, industries are concentrated in four main regions:
- West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chhatisgarh
- Maharashtra and Gujarat region
- Gangetic Plains
- South India
First Time in India
- Cotton Industry (1818): Fort Gloster (Kolkata)
- Iron and Steel Industry (1870): Kulti (West Bengal)
- Sugar Industry (1900): Bihar
- Jute Industry (1855): Rishara (West Bengal)
- Paper Industry (1812): Serampur (W. Bengal)
- Petroleum Industry (1956): Digboy (Assam)
- Cement Industry (1904): Chennai (Tamil Nadu)
Agro-based Industries of India
- These industries depend on agricultural products as raw materials for the manufacturing products.
Cotton Textile Industry
- Mumbai is called the Manchester of India, for the large concentration of cotton mills in and around the city.
- India is one of the leading producers of cotton textile, ranking third in the world.
- India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and is the second largest exporter after Bangladesh. Also faces competition from Brazil and Thailand.
- Most of the 70 jute mills are located on the 98 km belt on both sides of River Hooghly in West Bengal.
- India ranks second in the world in the production of sugar and first in producing gur and khandsari.
- Major sugar producing states: Maharashtra, UP,Gujarat, Bihar, MP, Haryana, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
- Problems faced: seasonal nature, transport delays, outdated and inefficient machineries.
- Major centres are Kolkata, Titagarh, Kakinada and Bhadravati.
- India’s production falls short of the demand.
- A large quantity of paper has to be imported.
Mineral-based Industries of India
Iron and Steel Industry
- India ranks 5th in the world in steel production and first in the production of sponge iron.
- Most of the steel plants are controlled by Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) that was established in 1974 and is responsible for development of steel industry.
- First large scale steel plant TISCO at Jamshedpur in 1907 followed by IISCO at Burnpur in 1919. Both belonged to private sector.
- The first public sector unit was ’Vishveshvarraya Iron and Steel Works’ at Bhadrawati.
- Bhilai, Durgapur and Rourkelawere established during the second five year plan. Bokaro was established during the third five year plan while the steel plants at Salem, Vijay Nagar and Vishakhapatnam were established in the fourth five year plan.
- It is the second most metallurgical industry in India.
- There are eight aluminium smelting plants in India.
Chemical and Fertilizer Industry
- India ranks 12th in the world in the production of different types of chemicals.
- India is the third largest nitrogenous fertilizer producer of the world.
- India exports cement to South and East Asia, Middle East and Africa.