Late Vedic Period (1000-500 BC)
All the three higher varnas shared one common feature, they were known as Dvijas (twice born).
The fourth varna was deprived of the sacred thread ceremony, and with it began the imposition of disabilities on the shudras.
The worst position is reserved for the shudra. He is called the servant of another.
Women were generally given alower position.
Ashramas or the four stages of life were created in the post-Vedic time.
The four ashramas were: Brahmachari or a student, grihastha or householder,vanaprastha or partial retirement and sanyasa or full withdrawal from the world.
Prajapati, the Creator, came to occupy a Supreme position in the later Vedic Period.
During the sixth and fourth centuries BC, Magadha (now Bihar), became the most powerful Mahajanapada.
The earliest capital of Magadha was at Rajgir,which was called Girivraja at that time.