Source of information: Hatigumpha Pillar inscription (Created by Kharavela)
He opposed Demetrius of Bactria and defeated them.
The Indo-Greeks were the first to issue gold coins in India, Which increased in number under the Kushans.
The Sakas were a group of nomadic tribes of Iranian origin or Scythian tribes, who lived in Central Asia.
The most famous Saka ruler in India was Rudradaman-I (A.D. 130-150).
The Saka kingdom in north-western India was followed by that of the Parthians (Saka-Pahlavas in Sanskrit text).
The most famous Parthian king was Gondophernes.
They were defeated by the Kushans in the second half of the 1st century AD.
The Parthians were succeeded by the Kushans who established a powerful empire in north India.
The greatest of the Kushana rulers was kanishka and is known for his military prowess.
Capital of Kushans: Purushpura (Peshawar).
Kanishka is considered to have conflicted with the Pataliputra and had taken Asvaghosa,the Buddhist Monk to Purushpura.
He was a patron of Buddhism and convened the 4th Buddhist Council in the Kundalvana of Kashmir (or may be in Jalandhar) in 78 AD.
Scholars in the Court of Kanishka were Parsva,Vasumitra, Asvaghosa,Nagarjuna, Charaka and Mathara.
Sushruta who wrote Sushruta Samhita has also been connected to Kanishka.
The Sangam Kingdom
The Tamil Sangam was an academy of poets and bards.
Founder of Chera Dynasty: Utiyan Cheralatan.
Founder of Chola Dynasty: Vijayalaya Capital – Kaveripattanam.
Most powerful kings of Chola Dynasty – Rajaraja (985-1014) and his son, Rajendra I.
Rajendra I founded anew capital called Gangai Kondacholapuram.
Rajendra I defeated the kings of Sumatra in anaval campaign and annexing a part of Sumarata kingdom to his kingdom.
Rajendra Chola III was the last king of the dynasty.
Pandya Dynasty: Madurai(Capital).
The Pandyakings were constantly at war with Pallavas, Cholas and Ceylon.
The three Sangam epics were Silappadikaram, Minimekalai and Sivaga Sidamanai.
The Gupta Empire (AD 320-467)
Founder – Sri Gupta
Nalanda University was built by Kumargupt.
The great Mathematician Aryabhata lived during this age. He discovered the number “0” and value of Pi. He wrote “Aryabhatiya” and “Suryasiddhanta”.
Kalidas the great poet also belonged to this period.
The great Physician Dhanvantari was also born in this era.
During this age Sanskrit language and literature were at its peak. Poets Kalidasa, Dandi, Visakhadatta, Shudraka, and Bharavi — all belonged to the Gupta Age.
Chandragupta (320-335 AD) was the son of Ghatotkacha and grandson of Sri Gupta.
He married to Kumaradevi, the Lichhavi princess of the rich ruling family in Magadha which helped the Gupta Empire to become a powerful empire.
Sumudragupta (AD 335-375) Harisena described him as the “Hero of a Hundred Battles.”
He was the greatest ruler of Gupta dynasty. He is called “Indian Napoleon”.
Prayag Prashasti (Writtenby Harisen) is the main source of information on his reign.
Samundragupta was succeeded by his son Chandragupta Vikramaditya (or II).
Kumaragupta (AD 415-455) is the son of Chandragupta II.
Kumaragupta’s dominion suffered severely from the invasion of Huna Hordes, all over North India.
Skandagupta is the son of Kumaragupta.
He defeated the Pushyamitra who had become powerful during the period of Kumaragupta. He also defeated the White Hunas.
Chandragupta II married his daughter Prabhavati with aVakataka prince who belonged to the Brahmana caste and ruled in central India.
His court had Navaratna (Nine Jewels). Kalidasa was one of the jewels among this Navaratna.
He conquered western Malwa and Gujarat, which had been under the rule of the Saka Kshatrapas for about four centuries by that time.
Tamralipti, aport in Bengal was an important trade centre during Gupta period.
The most important officers in the Gupta empire were the kumaramatyas.
The empire was divided into divisions : bhuktis (under the charge of an uparika) and vishayas (Districts) under the charge of vishyapati.
Gupta Period is also known as the ‘Golden Age of Ancient India’.