Religious Movements

Came into existence around 600 B.C.

The main cause being reaction against domination of Brahmins and spread of agricultural economy in North-East.


Founder–Rishabhadeva (First Tirthankara).

Mahavira was the last of the 24 tirthankaras.

Jainism was divided into two sects: Shwetambaras and Digambaras.

The First Council was held at Pataliputra by Sthulabahu.

The Second Council was held at Valabhi under the leadership of Devaradhi Kshamasramana.


• Jainism was based on 5 doctrines : (i) Ahinsa, i.e. non-violence; (ii) do not speak alie, (iii) do not steal. (iv) do not acquire property, and (v) observe continence (Brahmacharya).

• Only the fifth (v) doctrine was added by Mahavir.

• Jainism recognizes the existence of the Gods but regarded them lower than the jina.

• Jainism did not condemn the Varna system.

Three Gems of Jainism (Ratnatrya)these are :

(i) Right faith (Samyak Vishwas)(ii) Right knowledge (Samyak Gyan)
(iii) Right conduct/action (Samyak Karma) Right knowledge (Samyak Gyan)
(iii) Right conduct/action (Samyak Karma)

Five Categories of Siddhas

(i) Tirthankara -who has attained salvation.
(ii) Arhat -who is about to attain Nirvana.
(iii) Acharya -The head of the ascetic group.
(iv) Upadhyaya – teacher or saint, and
(v) Sadhu – an ordinary ascetic.


Gautam Buddha was the founder of Buddhism.

His real name was Siddhartha.

His father was aking named Suddodana Tharu and Mother was Mahamaya.

He was born at Lumbini.

He discovered enlightenment under the peepal tree (Bodhi Vriksha) in Gaya, Bihar at the age of 35.

He gave his first sermon at the Deer Park in Sarnath.

It was divided into three main sects: Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana.

There are three tripitak : Vinay Pitak (rules and regulations, which the Buddha promulgated), Sutta Pitak(discourses delivered by Buddha himself) and Abhidhamma Pitak(religions discourses of Buddha).

Milindapanhs (dialogues between Menander and Buddhist saint Nagsen).• Jatakas are the pre-birth stories of Buddha.

He died at Kushinagara in U.P.the capital of mallas.

Buddha means enlightened or the awakened or the wise one.

Nirvana means to blow out or extinguish fires of greed, hatred and delusion.

The followers of Hinayana believed inthe original teaching of Buddha.

Hinayanas did not believe in idol-worship.

Hinayanas believed in the heavenliness of Buddha.

Hinayanas believed in the heavenliness of Buddha.

Mahayanas sought solution through the grace of Buddha.

Mahayanas believes in idol-worship.

Vajrayana believes that salvation can be attained by magical power (i.e. Vajra)

Vajrayana became popular in Bihar,Bengal, Tibet.

Buddhist Councils

First Council at Rajgir where VinayaPitaka & Sutra Pitaka were compiled.

Second council at Vaishali in 383 B.C.

Third Council at Patliputra in 250 B.C. during Ashoka’s reign.

Fourth Council in Kashmir during Kanishka’s reign.