Early Medieval Period


North India (AD 800 – 1200)

After the death of Harshavardhan three dynasties came into existence in the northern part of India and Deccan. Palas, Gurjara-Partiharas and Rashtra-kutas.

The Palas (750-1150 AD) ruled in Bi-har and Bengal from the 8th to the 12th century.

The Palas were supporters of Bud-dhism.

The Gurjara-Pratiharas were Rajputs who ruled in Gujarat and Rajasthan and later Kanauj.

Nagabhata-I was great ruler of the dynasty who defeated Muslim forces of Arab.

Bhoja-I (836-885 AD) adopted the title of Adivaraha.

The Rashtrakutas- Dantidurga (Found-er); Capital – Manyakheta.

The king Amonghavarsha-I himself authored a part of Kavirajamarga.

The king Krishna-I built the famous temple of Kailash at Ellora.

Tripartite Struggle

Tripartite conflict was fought among the Gurjara-Pratiharas, Rashtrkutas and Palas for the control over Kannauj.

Kannauj was located on the Ganga trade route and was connected to the Silk route.

The tripartite struggle continued from the end of eighth century to middle of tenth century.

This struggle started during the reign of Vatsaraja-Pratihara.

Both Dharmpala, the Pala king and Pratiharaking, Vatsaraja clashed against each other for Kannauj.

Nagabhata ll Pratihara finally defeated Chakrayudha and usurped the throne of Kannauj.

The Rajputs

The period between 647 A.D. and 1192 A.D., i.e. 500 years is known as the Ra-jput period in the history of India.

The most powerful Rajputs: Gahadav-alas (Kanauj), the Paramaras(Malwa),and the Chauhans (Ajmer).

Other smaller dynasties :Kalachu-ris-Jabalpur,the Chandella in Bun-delkhand), the Chalukyas (Gujarat), and the Tomars (Delhi), etc.

Prithviraj Chauhan‘s (1178-92 AD) empire included Punjab, Haryana, Ra-jasthan and Uttar Pradesh.

His court’spoet Chand Bardai wrote Prithviraj Chauhan’s biography “Prith-viraj Raso”.

He defeated Shahabuddin Muham-mad Ghori in the first battle of Tar-rain in 1191.

In the Second battle of Tarrain (1192) Muhammad Ghori won and killed Prithviraj Chauhan.

Jayachandra was the king of Kannauj. Muhammad Ghori defeated and killed Jayachandra in the Battle of Chadawar in 1194.

Rana Kumbha was the ruler of Mewar,a state in western India.

Dilwara temples at Mount Abu, the Vimala Vasahi and the Luna Vasahi were built by Solankis of Gujarat.

South India

The founder of Chola Kingdom: Vijayalaya.

Rajaraja Chola (985-1014 AD) was one of the imperialistic and greatest Chola rulers.

He maintained diplomatic ties with countries as distant as Burma (Myan-mar), China, and Malaysia across the Indian Ocean.

He built Raja Rajeshwar Temple.

Rajendra-I built up a new capital called Gangaikondacholapuram.

It was divided into Mandalams (prov-inces), Valanadus (commissionary), Nadus (district) and Kurram (group of villages).

The founder of Kadamba was Mayura-jarmas.

The founder of the Hoysalas dynasty was Sala.

The Gangas were associated with the Kanva dynasty.

The first ruler of the Yadavs dynasty was Bhillama Vand, made Devagiri his capital.

Kakatiyas were popular under the rule of Ganapati.