The Mamluk dynasty or The Slave Dynasty (1206-1290 AD)


Qutubuddin Aibak was the founder of Slave Dynasty.

He also began the construction of Qu-tub Minar, in the honour of famous Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakh-ityar Kaki.

He was given the title of Lakh Bakhsh (giver of Lakhs).

He died in 1210 while playing Chaugan or Polo.

Shamsuddin Iltutmish was a slave of Qutubuddin Aibak.

He organised lqta system.

He established the official nobility slaves known as Chahalgani/Chalisa (a group of forty).

Iltutmish stopped the Mongol attack in 1221 A.D led by Chenghiz Khan.

Iltutmish nominated his daughter Ra-zia as the successor.

She was the first and only Muslim lady that ever ruled in India.

She married Altunia and they both headed towards Delhi.

She further offended the nobles by her preference for an Abyssian slave Yakut.

In 1240 A.D, Razia was the victim of a conspiracy and was killed near Kaithal (Haryana).

After Razia, rulers were Bahram Shah, Masud Shah, Nasiruddin Mahamud.

Ghiyasuddin Balban ascended the throne in 1266.

He ended the influence of Chalisa.

He introduced the practice of sijdaand paibos.

Kaiqubad, grandson of Balban killed by the Khilji family.

Jalaluddin Khilji founded Khilji dy-nasty.

Invaded the fort of Ranthambhor in 1290 and defeated Mongols in 1292.

Alauddin Khilji was the nephew and son-in-law of Jalaluddin Khilji.

He killed Jalaluddin Khilji and took over the throne in 1296.

He was the first Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from politics.

Alauddin took control of Gujarat (1298), Ranthambhor (1301), Mewar (1303), Malwa (1305), Jalor (1311). In Deccan, Alauddin’s army led by Malik Kafur defeated Ram Chandra, Pratap Rudradeva, Vir ballal-III and Vir Pan-dya.

He appointed Diwan-i-Riyasat and Shahna-i-Mandi to regulate the fixed price market.

He abolished Iqtas of royal troopers and the payment of their salaries in cash.

He constructed monuments like Alai-Darwaza and Sirifort in Delhi.

Ghazi Malik with the name of Ghiya-suddin Tughluq became the Sultan of Delhi in 1320.

His son Jauna (Ulugh Khan) succeeded himwiththetitle“Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq”.

Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq organised better postal system.

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ascended the throne in 1325.

He tried to introduce many admin-istrative reforms such as taxation in the Doab (1326), transfer of Capital to Daulatabad (1327), introduction of Token Currency (1329), etc.

He established the city of Jahanpanah and created Diwan-i-Kohi.

Firoz Shah Tughlaq established Di-wan-i-Khairat (department for poor and needy people), and Diwan-l-Bundagan (department of slaves).

He constructed some canals for irriga-tion.

He repaired Qutub Minar in 1368 which had got damaged in an earth-quake.

Khizr Khan was the first Sultan of the Sayyed Dynasty.

The other rulers of this dynasty were Mubarak Shah (1421-1434), Muham-mad Shah (1434-1443), Alam Shah (1443-1451).