Religious Movements

Bhakti Movement

Bhakti means personal devotion to God. It stresses the Union of the indi-vidual with God.

Bhakti movement originated in South India between the 7th and the 12th centuries AD.

The Nayanmars, who worshipped Siva, and the Alwars, who worshipped Vishnu, preached the idea of Bhakti.

Saints like Sankara, Ramanuja and Madhwa gave their concepts of God and the individual soul.

Teachings of Ramanuja were based on the Upanishads and Bhagwad Gita.

Ramananda was disciple of Ramuna-ja. He was the first reformer to preach in Hindi.

Kabir was an ardent disciple of Ra-mananda. He wanted unity between the Hindus and the Muslims.

He preached that both the Hindus and the Muslims are the children of a single God.

The devotees of Kabir were known as Kabir Panthis.

Namdeva was a waterman by birth. He composed beautiful hymns in Marathi.

Nanak was the founder of the Sikh re-ligion.

• Nanak’s teachings were in the form of verses. They were collected in a book called the Adi Granth.

• Later Adi Grantham was written in ascript called Gurmukhi.

Chaitaniya, agreat devotee of Lord Krishna, was a saint from Bengal.

Meerabai was a Rajput princess. She married the Rana of Mewar. She was a pious devotee of Lord Krishna.

• Chatrapati Shivaji, the great Maratha ruler, was a follower of Ramdas.

Tukaram was a saint who lived in Ma-harashtra. He composed alarge num-ber of verses called Abhangas.

Tulsidas composed the famous Ram-charitamanas in Hindi, expounding the various aspects of Hindu dharma.

Surdas was a devotee of Lord Krishna and Radha. His works include Sur-sagar,Sahitya Ratna and Sur Sarawali.

Dadu Dayal was adisciple of Kabir.His followers were known as Dadu Panthis.

Eknath was adevotee of Vithoba. He wrote commentary on verses of the Bhagavad Gita.