Arrival of Europeans in india


On 17th May 1498, Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese navigator, came to Calicut.

He found new trade route from Europe to Asia via Cape of Good Hope.

He became the first European to re-establish trade relations with India.

He was welcomed with honour by the Zamorin of Calicut.

He returned back to Portugal in AD 1499.

His second visit in 1502 established Portuguese Trading Centres at Calicut, Cannanore and Cochin.

Cochin was the first capital of the Portuguese in India which was shifted to Goa later on.


Dutch arrived in India as a beginning of Portuguese decline in 1605.

The Dutch East India company of Netherlands was formed in 1592 to trade with East Indies.

Cornelis Houtman was the first Dutch who came to India.

The Dutch established trading centres at Nagapatnam in Tamil Nadu; Machlipatnam in Andhra Pradesh, Chinsora in Bengal & at Mahe on the Malabar coast.

Their headquarter in India was at Nagapatnam.

They could not compete with Portuguese & English and so left India.


In AD 1664 French came to India as a last European Community.

The French East India Company was founded by Jean Baptiste Colbert.

In 1667, the first French Factory was established at Surat.

The second Factory was established at Masulipatnam in 1669.

Franco Martin was the well-known French Viceroy in India.

Joseph-Francois Duplex was the most powerful French Governor, appointed in 1742.

The Anglo-French rivalry can be acknowledged by the three Carnatic wars fought between French & English during 1745 & 1763.


In 1616 the Danes came to India.

They established at Tranquebar (Tamil Nadu) in 1620 and Serampore(Bengal) in 1676.

They made Seramporeas their head-quarters.

In 1854 they were pressured to sell their establishment to the British.