The Freedom Struggle – Part 2


Khilafat movement force that arose in India in the early 20th century as a result of Muslim fears for the integrity of Islam.

These fears were aroused by Italian (1911) and Balkan (1912–13) attacks on Turkey—whose sultan, as Caliph, was the religious head of the world-wide Muslim community—and by Turkish defeats in World War.

A campaign in defence of the caliph was launched, led in India by the brothers Shaukat and Muhammad Ali and by Abul Kalam Azad.

The non-cooperation movement was led by Mahatma Gandhi.

After the Jallianwala Bagh incident, Gandhi started the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Protestors would refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handi-crafts, picket liquor shops.

On February 5, 1922, in the Chauri Chaura the police chowki was set onire by the mob, killing 22 of the police occupants.

The non-cooperation movementwas withdrawn because of the Chauri Chaura incident.

Swaraj Party, Indian political party established in late 1922–early 1923 by members of the Indian National Congress (Congress Party), notably Motilal Nehru, one of the most prominent lawyers in northern India (and the father of political leader Jawaharlal Nehru), and Chittaranjan Das, a nationalist politician from Bengal.

Simon Commission was appointed in November 1927 to report on the Working of the Indian Constitution established by the Government of India Act of 1919.

The Commission consisted of seven members; Sir John Simon, and Clement Attlee were Joint chairman.

On February 3, 1928, the Simon Commission was confronted by throngs of protesters.

The Lahore protest was led by Indian nationalist Lala Lajpat Rai, was severely beaten by local police. He died on November 17, 1928.

The Nehru Report in August 1928 was a memorandum outlining a proposed new dominion status constitution for India.

It was prepared by a committee of the All Parties Conference chaired by Motilal Nehru with his son Jawaharlal acting as secretary.

The Dandi March, also known as the Salt Satyagraha, began on 12 March 1930 and was an important part of the Indian independence movement.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi(commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi) led the Dandi March from his base, Sabarmati Ashram to the coastal village of Dandi.

Gandhi broke the salt laws at 6:30 am on 6 April 1930.

The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of conferences organized by the British Government to discuss constitutional reforms in India.

First Round Table Conference
(November 1930 – January 1931).

Second Round Table Conference
(September – December 1931)

Third Round Table Conference
(November – December 1932).

The Round Table Conference was opened officially by Lord Irwin on November 12, 1930 at London and chaired by the British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald.

The second session opened on September 7, 1931.

Mahatma Gandhi attended the second session.

In the third Conference only forty six delegates attended since most of the main political figures of India were not present.