The Freedom Struggle – Part 3


The Gandhi–Irwin Pact was a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the then Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5 March 1931.

It was signed before the Second Round Table Conference in London.

The British Government agreed to withdraw all ordinances and end prosecutions and release all political prisoners.

The Communal Award was made by the British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald on 16 August 1932.

According to it, separate representation was to be provided for the For-ward Caste, Lower Caste, Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans and Dalits.

The Poona Pact refers to an agreement between Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi signed on 24 September 1932 at Yerwada Central Jail in Pune (now in Maharashtra), India.

The concept of separate electorates for the Untouchables was raised by Dr.Ambedkar.

The British government agreed with Ambedkar’s contention, and British Prime Minister Ramsay. MacDonald’s Communal Award to the depressed classes was to be incorporated into the Constitution in the governance of British India.

Gandhi strongly opposed the Communal Award on the grounds that it would disintegrate Hindu society.

He began an indefinite hunger strike at Yerwada Central Jail. A compromise was reached on September 24, 1932 between Gandhiji and Ambedkar.

In March 1940, Congress passed are solution offering the British Government support in war, if a provisional National Government is set up at Centre.

The Congress did not approve the August Offer.

The name “Pakistan” had been proposed by Choudhary Rahmat Ali in his Pakistan Declaration.

In 1940 at the Lahore Session of the Muslim League, the demand for a separate state of Pakistan was made.

It was based on the two-nation theory.

Abul Kalam Azad opposed the demand for a separate state and fought against communal tendencies and for the free-dom of the Indian people.

The Cripps Mission was an attempt in late March 1942 by the British government to secure full Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II.

The Mission was headed by Sir Stafford Cripps.

Cripps promised to give dominion status after the war as well as elections to be held after the war.

Both the major parties, the Congress and the League rejected his proposals and the Mission proved a failure.

Quit India Movement was a civil dis-obedience movement launched in India on 8 August 1942 by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

Gandhiji gave the slogan “Do or Die”.

One of the greatest achievements of the Quit India Movement was that it kept the Congress Party united all through these challenging times.

The movement was crushed by the British Government.

The Indian National Army was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II.

The aim of the army was to secure Indian independence with Japanese assistance.

Initially INA was formed in 1942. It was revived under the leadership of Subhas Chandra Bose in 1943.

Gandhi Brigade, Azad Brigade and Nehru Brigade are three brigades of INA.

The Rani of Jhansi Regiment was under Lakshmi Sahgal, comprised female volunteers from Malaya and Burma.

Cabinet Mission was composed of three Cabinet Ministers of England: Sir Pethick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps, and Alexander.

The Mission arrived on March 24, 1946.

The objective of this Mission was to devise a machinery to draw up the Constitution of Independent India.

Muslim League rejected the idea of the Interim Government.

On July 27, the Muslim League Council met at Bombay where Jinnah reiterated the demand for Pakistan.

On July 29, it rejected the plan and called the Muslims to resort to “Direct Action” to achieve the land of their dream “Pakistan”.

August 16, 1946 was fixed as “Direct Action Day“.

The Interim Government of India formed on 2 September 1946 from the newly elected Constituent Assembly of India. It existed till 15 August 1947.