The Revolt of 1857
Political Causes: The policy of Doctrine of Lapse.
Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao I.
Rani Laxmi Bai’s adopted son was not recognized by the East India Company as the heir to Jhansi.
Bahadur Shah’s successor was denied the right to live at the Red Fort.
Economic Causes: Heavy taxation, evictions, discriminatory tariff policy against Indian products, destruction of traditional handicrafts.
Military Discrimination: Discrimination between the Indian and the British soldiers.
Religious Discrimination: The introduction of Enfield rifle, the cartridge. of which was greased with animal fat, provided the spark.
On March 29, 1857, a soldier named Mangal Pandey attacked and fired at his senior at Barrackpur in Bengal (in 19th and 34th Native infantry).
Mutiny spread throughout UP along with some other parts of the country.
Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II was proclaimed the Emperor of India.
Causes of Failure of the Revolt: Lack of planning, organization and leadership.
Some Indians supported the British in suppressing the revolt as Scindia of Gwalior, the Holkar of Indore, the Nizam of Hyderabad,the Raja of Jodhpur, the Nawab of Bhopal, the rulers of Patiala, Sindh and Kashmir and the Rana of Nepal.
The revolt was mainly feudal in character carrying with it some nationalist elements.
The control of Indian administration was passed on to the British crown by the Government of India Act, 1858.
After the revolt, the British pursued the policy of Divide and Rule.