The Panchayati Raj
The Panchayati Raj (Article 243-O)
Rajasthan is the first state in India, where Panchayati Raj was implemented in the 73rd Amendment Act, 1992.
1991- P.V.Narasimha Rao Govt. Rajya Sabha accepted the bill.
1993- After acceptance of 17 states, on 20th, April, 1993 President of India signed on it.
It gave Constitutional status to Panchayati Raj system.
After Amendment Panchayati Raj added to the 11th Schedule of the Constitution.
29 items related to Panchayats are there in Article 243(G).
The Three Tire System of Local Governance
- Gram Panchayat at Village Level
- Panchayat Samiti at Block Level
- Zila Parishad at District Level
The Panchayat system has been established in all the states except Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram.
It also exists in all Union Territories except Delhi.
Panchayat system is provided for all States having a population more than 2 million.
Every Panchayat can continue for five years from the date of its first meetings.
Committees to Study Panchayat System
Balwantrai Mehta (1957): Establish local bodies, devolve power and authority, basic unit of decentralized government to be Block/Samiti. Conceptualized PRIs as 3-tier system.
K Santhanam (1963): Panchayats to have powers to levy tax on land revenue, etc. Panchayati Raj Finance Corporation to be set up.
Ashok Mehta (1978): District to be a viable administrative unit for planning. PRIs as two tier system with Mandal Panchayat and Zila Parishad.
GVK Rao (1985): PRIs to be activated and supported, Block Development Office (BDO) to be central to rural develop-ment.
LM Singhvi (1986): Local self-governments to be Constitutionally recognized, non-involvement of political parties.