English Language


DIRECTIONS (Qs. 101-105): In each of the following questions a short passage is given with one of the lines in the passage missing and represented by a blank. Select the best out of the five answer choices given, to make the passage complete and coherent.
101.Women’s rights around the world are an important indicator to understand global well-being. A major global women’s rights treaty was ratified by the majority of the world’s nations a few decades ago. ...... These ranges from the cultural, political to the economic. For example, women often work more than men, yet are paid less; gender discrimination affects girls and women throughout their lifetime; and women and girls are often the ones that suffer the most poverty. Many may think that women’s rights are only an issue in countries where religion is law. Or even worse,some may think this is no longer an issue at all. But reading the report about the United Nation’s Women’s Treaty and how an increasing number of countries are lodging reservations will show otherwise. Gender equality furthers the cause of child survival and development for all of society, so the importance of women’s rights and gender equality should not be underestimated.
(a)This treaty tackled and solved a number of issues related to women.

(b)Why is it then, that moment still face a number of problems on the domestic front?

(c)Thus, the woman today is ten times more empowered as compared to a woman say about a decade ago.

(d)Women’s activists across nations have implored the respective governments to take this seriously.

(e)Yet, despite many successes in empowering women,numerous issues still exist in all areas of life.

Answer:- (a)This treaty tackled and solved a number of issues related to women.

For attempting this type of questions it is important to correlate what is being stated before the blank space and what is stated after the blank.While it is also important to see in which direction the passage will go if a particular choice is selected.In this question, women's rights treaty being ratified by a number of countries is discussed so in the following sentence effects of these should be discussed. Option (b)can be rejected as for solving the problems treaty was ratified. (c) is a judgment al statement and should be avoided when no certain information is available. (d) can fit well before the ratification of the treaty but not after it. There should be a continuation in passage. Option (e)is in correct for the logic that first basic rights will be achieved and then only empowering can be mentioned. This option is one step further and not about the women's right.

102.Research has shown that air pollutants from fossil fuel use make clouds reflect more of the sun’s rays back into space.This leads to an effect known as global dimming where by less heat and energy reaches the earth. ............ However, it is believed that global dimming caused the droughts in certain parts of the world where millions died, because the northern hemisphere oceans were not warm enough to allow rain formation. Global dimming is also hiding the true power of global warming. By cleaning up global dimming-causing pollutants without talking greenhouse gas emissions, rapid warming has been observed, and various human health and ecological disasters have resulted, as witnessed during the European heat wave in 2003, which saw thousands of people die
(a)This though, does not bring any relief in the problems associated with climate change.

(b)This phenomenon thus is part of the climate change problem.

(c)Scientists thus believe that this phenomenon goes hand in hand with global warming

(d)At first, it sounds like an ironic savior to climate change problems

(e)The answer to all our problems with respect to climate change is definitely here

Answer:- (c)Scientists thus believe that this phenomenon goes hand in hand with global warming

Option(b) & (d) can be rejected as climate change is mentioned nowhere in the passage. After the blank global warming is mentioned and before it global dimming. So blank can work as a connector for both of these. Option (c) includes both. Hence this is the best option. (e) is like deciding in haste without understanding the intent of passage.

103.Poverty is the state for the majority of the world’s people and nations. Why is this? .......... Have they been lazy, made poor decisions, and been solely responsible for their own plight? What about their governments? Have they pursued policies that actually harm successful development? Such causes of poverty and inequality are no doubt real. But deeper and more global causes of poverty are often less discussed. Behind the increasing inter connectedness promised by globalization are global decisions, policies,and practices. These are typically influenced, driven, or formulated by the rich and powerful.These can be leaders of rich countries or other global actors such as multinational corporations, institutions, and influential people. In the face of such enormous external influence, the governments of poor nations and their people are often powerless. As a result, in the global context, a few get wealthy while the majority struggles.
(a)Is it enough to blame poor people for their own predicament?

(b)What is the government doing about it?

(c)Are the wealthy ones in the nation even aware of this?

(d)The government has already taken measures to eradicate the same.

(e)The huge gap between the rich and the poor in the nation is now narrowing

Answer:- (a) Is it enough to blame poor people for their own predicament?

Before blank space a question is posed. And after the blank space reasons which can be associated with poor people themselves is discussed so the blank space should have a special mention of poor people whether in form of question or a simple statement (b) & (d)won't fit well here so they can be ruled out.Rich is not even introduced in passage till this point,therefore option (e) can also be rejected. Additionally Option (a) gives a logical and sensible flow to the passage

104.Analysts and industry pundits fore cast that notebook market, which has been growing faster than the desktop market for the past three years, is expected to overtake the desktop market by the year 2011-12. A fall in prices, large deals from governments and institutions, and demand from consumers and sectors such as education are expected to help the notebook numbers. According to research agencies,the year 2010-11 saw notebook volumes rise, and for the first time a million plus notebooks were sold in India in a single quarter. The market has grown nearly four times for notebooks. The demand is driven by all sectors and a very buoyant consumer market, which prefers mobile computers.Entry-level notebook prices have dropped below the Rs.25,000 mark; this has helped break the ice with new customers. This drop in notebook prices has been helped by the drop in the prices of the building blocks that make a notebook. It’s simple. With notebook volumes growing, the prices of the components are also bound to comedown. ........
(a)All this has resulted in a noticeable change in a number of large government tenders for notebooks; which were traditionally for desktops.

(b)Because of this the government still prefers desktops to notebooks and has passed tenders for the same.

(c)Thereby making them more expensive.

(d)Thus the forecast for the coming year states that desktops will be the preferred technology choice only for consumers who can not afford the exorbitantly priced notebook.

(e)Thus notebooks will become obsolete after a decade or so.

Answer: (a)All this has resulted in a noticeable change in a number of large government tenders for notebooks; which were traditionally for desktops.

Only option which is positive for notebooks and is in accordance with their prices coming down is (a). Option(b)is against what is being said in the last line of the passage. (c) is completely illogical and hard to come by as it talks about the prices of components coming down but prices notebooks so ring high. (e) is also indifferent direction and is not related to spirit of passage.Option (d) is about desktops not note books.

105.Next to China, India is the most populated country in the world. ...... Particularly, rush to technical and higher education has increased as the scope for arts and science has become lesser and lesser due to lack of reforms and upgradation in the course structure and materials according to the developments of the world. Also, qualification in higher education gives added advantage to face successfully competition in the job market.
(a)Keeping this in mind, the government has provided concessions in the admission fees for the arts and science streams in the country.

(b)Naturally there is too much rush and competition in every field.

(c)Despite this the rush to higher education is lesser.

(d)This population increase, though, has not kept pace with the knowledge expansion around the world.

(e)In the next decade it will become the most populous.

Answer:- (b)Naturally there is too much rush and competition in every field.

Sentence before the blank space is about the population and after it about the rush in for college education Option(b)is related to both the statements(before and after the blank) (e) is repetition of what is said in opening statement. (a) is like sudden intrusion of government's angle in passage with no relation to statements preceding and following the blank space.

DIRECTIONS (Qs. 106-110) : Rearrange the following seven sentences (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6)and (7) in the proper sequence to from a meaningful paragraph; then answer the questions given below them.

(1)To elaborate briefly on these characteristics and dimensions that the author is talking about – NRMs are general tests intended to be used to classify students by percentile for measuring either aptitude or proficiency for admissions into or placement within a program.

(2)Contrastingly, the CRM, such as a locally produced achievement test, measures absolute performance that is compared only with the learning objective, hence a perfect score is theoretically obtainable by all students who have a mastery of the pre-specified material, or conversely, all students may fail the test.

(3)In most of these books, the authors classify a measurement strategy as either norm-referenced (NRM) or criterion-referenced (CRM).

(4)Another author points out how the type of interpretation that an NRM offers is the relative performance of the students compared with that of all the others resulting in,ideally, a bell curve distribution.

(5)Numerous books on constructing and using language tests have been written by various authors.

(6)CRMs, on the other hand, are more specific, achievement or diagnostic tests intended to be used for motivating students by measuring to what percent they have achieved mastery of the thought or learned material.

(7)One of the authors clearly delineates the differences of these two types by focusing on the categories of “test characteristics” and “logistical dimensions.”

106.Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?

(a)7 (b)2 (c)3 (d)4 (e)5

107.Which of the following should be the SEVENTH (LAST) sentence after rearrangement?

(a)1 (b)2 (c)3 (d)4 (e)5

108.Which of the following should be the FIFTH sentence after rearrangement?

(a)1 (b)2 (c)3 (d)6 (e)5

109.Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement?

(a) 1 (b)2 (c)3 (d)4 (e)5

Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement?

(a)1 (b)2 (c)3 (d)4(e)5

Use of words like 'contrastingly' and 'these' in most of the sentences imply that some sentences precede these sentences. Only Statement which introduces the topic of discussion is Option (e). So it is the first sentence of sequence. Statement 3 extends the topic of books. So follows naturally. 'these two types' of Statement 7 are two types discussed in Statement 3. Statement 6 is about CRMs so the just before it there should be discussion of NRMs. Last statement is 2 as it finishes the passage on summarizing note. So the correct order of sentences is 5374612.

106.(e)

107.(b)

108.(d)

109.(c)

110.(c)

DIRECTIONS (Qs. 111-115) : The following questions consist of a single sentence with one blank only. You are given six words as answer choices and from the six choices you have to pick up two correct answers, either of which will make the sentence meaningfully complete.
111.The ability of a woman to do well does not.......... on whether it is a man’s world or not, because everyone has his/her own opportunities.

(1)trust

(2)depend

(3)reckon

(4)live

(5)rest

(6)believe

(a)(4) and(5)

(b)(2) and(3)

(c)(1) and(6)

(d)(2) and (5)

(e)(3) and(4)

Answer:- (d)(2) and (5)

Option (d) is the answer and there are two reasons for it. First one is that from the context of situation independence of women from the man's world is indicated so some word to show dependency should be used. Depend and Rest both show dependence so these are the answers. Second one is that as blank space is followed by ON a word that connects grammatically so it should be used. Both 'depend on'and 'rest on' are the correct usage,so it confirms the selection on basis of the first reason. Other options are not logical.

112.Drugs worth 3 lakhs were ......... from the apartment by the police.

(1)manufactured

(2)ruptured

(3)seized

(4)confiscated

(5)bought

(6)compared

(a)(1) and(4)

(b)(2) and(3)

(c)(3) and(5)

(d)(5) and (6)

(e)(3) and(4)

Answer: (e)(3) and(4)

Confiscated – means to officially take something away from somebody, especially as a punishment.Seized definitely fits in the blank therefore option E is correct.

113.An organization .......... to the mission of road safety has prepared an action plan for reducing accidents and related injuries and fatalities.

(1)specified

(2)inaugurated

(3)committed

(4)kicked off

(5)succumbed

(6)dedicated

(a)(3) and(6)

(b)(1) and(5)

(c)(3) and(5)

(d)(4) and (6)

(e)(1) and(3)

Answer:- (a)(3) and(6)

Organization and mission are two words which can be connected with committed or dedicated both the verbs- organizations committed/ dedicated to …..Objectives.Other words like kicked off/inaugurated/ succumbed do not match for objectives of organization.

114.A man reportedly .......... two passports with the same photograph, but under different names was arrested by the commissioner’s Task Force.

(1)possessing

(2)examining

(3)surrendering

(4)mastering

(5)holding

(6)fixating

(a)(2) and(3)

(b)(3) and(6)

(c)(1) and(5)

(d)(1) and (4)

(e)(4) and(5)

Answer:- (c)(1) and(5)

Holding and Possessing both gives the same meaning and sense to the sentence. Surrendering is inappropriate. Mastering cannot be linked with passports. Fixating is also incorrect for the blank space as it gives no logical sense to the sentence. Examining can grammatically fit into the blank but not in the context of passage and would give a different direction to what is being said in the sentence

115.The Hollywood star and the Bollywood heroine are being......... as the next big onscreen couple.(1)labeled

(2)explained

(3)worshiped

(4)touted

(5)exclaimed

(6)shouted

(a)(2) and(4)

(b)(1) and(3)

(c)(2) and(6)

(d)(1) and (4)

(e)(3) and(4)

Answer:- (d)(1) and (4)

(d)'Next big thing' is always a projection or a decision based on current situation. It is neither worshipped nor shouted nor explained. Rather next big thing is touted or labeled on basis of projection

DIRECTIONS (Qs. 116-120) : Below is given a single word with options to its meaning in different contexts. You have to select all those options which are synonyms of the word when the context is changed. Select the correct alterative from (a),(b), (c), (d) and (e) which represents all those synonyms.
116.MASK

(1)Cover

(2)Hide

(3)Conceal

(4)Disguise

(a)Only (1)

(b)Both (2) and(4)

(c)Only(2), (3) and(4)

(d)Only(1), (2) and(3)

(e)All (1),(2), (3) and (4)

Answer: (e)All (1),(2), (3) and (4)

Dictionary Meaning of MASK -1.A covering worn on the face to conceal one's identity,2.A protective covering for the face or head

117.REGULAR

(1)Present

(2)Common

(3)Indiscriminate

(4)Uniform

(a)Only (4)

(b)Both (2) and(4)

(c)Both (1) and (3)

(d)Only (2), (3) and (4)

(e)All (1),(2), (3) and (4)

Answer:- (d)Only (2), (3) and (4)

118.LABOUR

(1)Expedite

(2)To move faster

(3)Controlled

(4)Toil

(a)Only (4)

(b)Both (1) and(3)

(c)Both (2), (3) and (4)

(d)Only (1), (3) and (4)

(e)All (1),(2), (3) and (4)

Answer:- (a)Only (4)

119.MEAN

(1)Imply

(2)Understand

(3)Average

(4)Characterized by malice

(a)Only (3)

(b)Both (1) and(4)

(c)Only(1), (3) and(4)

(d)Only(1), (2) and(4)

(e)All (1),(2), (3) and (4)

Answer:- (c)Only(1), (3) and(4)

Dictionary Meaning of MEAN -1.(a)To be used to convey;denote.(b)To act as a symbol of; signify or represent 2.To be mean – cheap,selfish or negativity attached to it.

120. ALONE

(1)Exclusively

(2)Morose

(3)Solitary

(4)Human being

(a)Only (1)

(b)Both (1) and(3)

(c)Both (2) and (3)

(d)Only (1), (3) and (4)

(e)All (1),(2), (3) and (4)

Answer:- (b)Both (1) and(3)

Dictionary Meaning of ALONE -1.Being apart from others; solitary.2.Being without anyone or anything else; only.3.Considered separately from all others of the same class. 4.Being without equal; unique Synonyms: alone, lonely, lonesome, solitary

DIRECTIONS (Qs. 121-135): In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

As the country embarks on planning (121)the 12th Plan (2012-17) period, a key question mark (122)hangs over the process is on the energy requirements.Growth is energy hungry,and the aspirations of growing at 9-10% will (123)huge demands on the energy resources of the country. In this energy Jigsaw, renewable energy will (124)like never before in the 12th Plan and the (125). By the rule of the thumb, India will (126)about 100 gigawatts (Gw)-100,000 megawatts-of capacity addition in the next five years. Encouraging trends on energy efficiency and sustained (127) by some parts of the government the Bureau of Energy Efficiency in particular needs to be complimented for this-have led to substantially lesser energy intensity of economic growth. However, even the tendered demand numbers are (128)to be below 80 Gw. As against this need the coal supply from domestic sources is unlikely to support more than 25 Gw equivalent capacity. Imported coal can add some more, but at a much (129)cost. Gas-based electricity generation is unlikely to contribute anythings ubstantial in view of the unprecedented gas supply challenges. Nuclear will be (130)in the foreseeable future.Between imported coal, gas, large hydro and nuclear, no more than 15-20Gw equivalent can be (131)to be added in the five-year time block. (132) (133)this, capacity addition in the renewable energy based power generation has touched about 3Gw a year. In the coming five years, the overall capacity addition in the electricity grid (134)renewable energy is likely to range between 20Gw and 25Gw. Additionally, over and above the grid-based capacity, off-grid electricity applications are reaching remote places and (135)lives where grid-based electricity supply has miserably failed.

121.

(a)On

(b)Against

(c)For

(d)On wards

(e)At

121.(c) We plan for future as sentence is about planning for future.

122.

(a)Where

(b)That

(c)Inside

(d)Always

(e)Who

123.

(a)Replace

(b)Forward

(c)Subject

(d)Place

(e)Demand

123.(d)A word like 'place' or 'put' can be used. Other words would give different direction to the passage.

124.

(a)Light

(b)Pass

(c)Publish

(d)Feature

(e)Find

124.(d)Feature is best among the options for something to appear in a plan

125.

(a)Earlier

(b)Likewise

(c)Publicity

(d)Next

(e)After

125.(d)Next suits best

126.

(a)Consumed

(b)Waste

(c)Require

(d)Highlight

(e)Generate

126.(c)Need of power for India is being mentioned so 'require' is proper word for denoting it

127.

(a)Developmental

(b)Structures

(c)Efforts

(d)Projections

(e)Practices

127.(c)An effort for fulfilling the energy need of India is being discussed in this part of passage.Projections/development or other options are not discussed here

128.

(a)Likely

(b)Sure

(c)Unsure

(d)Unexpected

(e)Unlikely

128.(e)It is an unexpected line so either option(d) or (e) is tobe used. But the structure and place of blank spacesuits more to option(e).

129.

(a)Expected

(b)Nominal

(c)Excelled

(d)Higher

(e)Lower

129.(d) Contrasting word with the supply and cost should be used. Supply is there but at higher cost. Supply is lowbut cost is low.So first case is relevant here as per the context of the passage

130.

(a)Marginal

(b)Failure

(c)Success

(d)Dangerous

(e)Maximum

130.(a)Limited nuclear power/energy is referred here up to a particular time.

131.

(a)Sure

(b)Certain

(c)Linked

(d)Remarked

(e)Expected

131.(e) Figures are not certain and only can be expected.

132.

(a)As

(b)When

(c)But

(d)However

(e)If

132.(a) A combination of words with question no. 33 has to be found out.

133.

(a)Against

(b)For

(c)With

(d)Is

(e)Ever

133.(a)Expectation line was crossed so for blank in 32. And33. As,against is to be used.

134.

(a)Capacity

(b)Through

(c)Project

(d)Versus

(e)Against

134.(b)'Through' gives aright usage for the context. Other options are not in line with context and also not grammatically correct

135.

(a)Generating

(b)Lightening

(c)Making

(d)Touching

(e)Saving

135.(d) With lives 'touching' is proper word to use. Making,generating are incorrect with 'lives'. Saving is illogicaland out of context. Lightening lives is a too strong word for the context
DIRECTIONS (Qs. 136-143) :Read the following passagecarefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.

In a reversal of the norm else where, in India policymakers and economists have become optimists while bosses do the worrying.The country’s Central Bank has predicted that the country’s economy is likely to grow at a double digit rate during the next 20-30 years. India has the capability with its vast labour and lauded entrepreneurial spirit. But the private sector which is supposed to do the heavy lifting that turns India from the world’s tenth largest economy to its third largest by 2030 has become fed up.Business people often carp about India’s problems but the irritation this time has a nervous edge. In the first quarter of 2011,GDP grew at an annual rate of 7.8 percent; in 2005-07 it manage d9-10 percent. The economy may be slowing naturally as the low interest rates and public spending that got India through the global crisis are belatedly withdrawn. At the same time the surge in inflation caused by exorbitant food prices has spread more widely, casting doubt over whether India can grow at 8-10 percent in the medium term without overheating.In India, as in many fast growing nations, the confidence to invest depends on the conviction that the long term trajectory is intact and it is that which is in doubt.Big Indian firms too sometimes seem happier to invest abroad than at home, in deals that are often hailed as symbols of the country’s growing clout but sometimes speak to its weaknesses – purchases of natural resources that India has in abundance but struggles to get out of the ground. In fact a further dip in investment could be self fulfilling: if fewer roads, ports and factories are built, this will hurt both short term growth figures and reduce the economy’s long term capacity.There is a view that because a fair amount of growth is assured the government need not try very hard. The liberalization reforms that began in 1991 freed markets for products and gave rise to vibrant competition, at the same time what economists call factor markets, those for basic inputs like land, power, labour etc remain unreformed and largely under state control, which creates difficulties. Clearances today can take three to four years and many employers are keen to replace workers with machines despite an abundance of labor force. This can be attributed to labor laws which are inimical to employee creation and an education system that means finding quality manpower a major problem. In fact the Planning Commission concluded that even achieving 9 percent growth will need marked policy action in unreformed sectors.Twenty years age it was said that yardstick against which India should be measured was its potential and it is clear that there remains much to do.

136.Which of the following can be said about the Indian economy at present?

(a)It can comfortably achieve double digit growth rare at present.

(b)High food prices have led to overheating of the economy.

(c)Citizens are affluent owing to laxity in regulation.

(d)Private sector confidence in India’s growth potential is high.

(e)Unreformed sectors are a drag on economic growth.

136.(a)Option (c) can be rejected as it is out of the context.Option (d) is also not true as they like to invest abroad than in India. Option (e) is true in parts. Only option which is in sync with major portion of passage is (a).

137.Why are employers reluctant to hire Indian labour force?

(1)India’s labour force is over qualified for the employment opportunities available.

(2)High attrition rate among employees stemming from their entrepreneurial spirit.

(3)Labour laws are not conducive to generating emploment.

(a)Only (3)

(b)All (1), (2) and (3)

(c)Only(1) and (3)

(d)Only (1) and (2)

(e)None of these

137.(a)Other options are not mentioned in the passage.

138.What is the state of India’s basic input sectors at present?

(a)These sectors attract Foreign Direct Investment because of their vast potential.

(b)These sectors are lagging as projects are usually awarded to foreign companies.

(c)These sectors are stagnating and badly in need of reforms.

(d)These sectors are well regulated as these are governed by the State.(e)None of these

138.(c) Last part of the passage chiefly describes it. Other options show these sectors in positive light which is against passage content

139.What is the author’s main objective in writing the passage?

(a)Showcasing the potential of India’s growth potential to entice foreign investors .

(b)Exhorting India to implement measures to live up to its potential.

(c)Recommending India’s model of development to other developing countries

(d)Berating the private sector for not bidding for infrastructure development projects.

(e)Criticising the measures taken by India during the global economic crisis.

139.(b) Option(b) is true in its completeness, encompassing the whole of the passage. But other options are true inparts only. Option(e) is false in parts

140.What impact has the GDP growth of 7.8 percent had?

(1)Indian Industry is anxious about India’s economic growth.

(2)India has achieved status as the world’s third largest economy at present.

(3)Foreign investment in India has drastically increased.

(a)Only (1)

(b)All (1), (2) and (3)

(c)Only(1) and (3)

(d)Only (1) and (2)

(e)None of these

140.(c) Both (1) and(3) are directly mentioned in passage.Statement 2 is just not true.

141.Which of the following is most similar in meaning to the word CLOUT given in bold as used in the passage?(a)Strike

(b)Standing

(c)Force

(d)Launch

(e)Achieve

141.(c)Meaning of Clout is force

142.Which of the following is most opposite in meaning to the word MARKED given in bold as used in the passage?(a)Decreased

(b)Ignored

(c)Clear

(d)Assessed

(e)Imperceptible

142.(e)Marked means distinguished and different.Imperceptible is that cannot be distinguished or percepted.

143.What measures do experts suggest be taken to ensure targeted economic growth?

(a)Loweing of interest rates to help industries hit by recession.

(b)Prolonged financial support for basic input industries.

(c)Incentives to Indian companies to invest in infrastucture.

(d)Formulation of policies and their implementation in factor markets

(e)Stringent implementation of licensing system

143.(d)Option(d) can be related to the experts as mentioned in the passage
DIRECTIONS (Qs. 144-150) :Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases are printed in bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.

In many countries, a combustible mixture of authoritarianism,unemployment and youth has given rise to disaffection with strong men rulers which has in turn spill over into uprising. Young people in these countries are far better educated than their parents were. In 1990 the average Egyptian had 4.4 years of schooling;by 2010 the figure had risen to 7.1 years. Could it be that education,by making people less willing to put up with restrictions on freedom and more willing to question authority, promotes democratization. Ideas about the links between education, Income and democracy are at the heart of what social scientists have long studied. Since then plenty of economists and political scientists have looked for statistical evidence of a causal link between education and democratization. Many have pointed to the strong correlation that exists between levels of education and measures like the pluralism of party politics and the existence of civil liberties. The patterns are similar when income and democracy are considered. There are outliers, of course – until recently, many Arab countries managed to combine energy-based wealth and decent education with undemocratic political systems.But some deduce from the overall picture that as China and other authoritarian states get more educated and richer, their people will agitate for greater political freedom, culminating in a shift to a more democratic form of government.This apparently reasonable intuition is shakier than it seems.Critics of the hypothesis point out that correlation is hardly causation. The general trend over the past half century may have been towards rising living standards, a wider spread of basic education and more democracy, but it is entirely possible that this is being by another variable. Even if the correlation were not spurious, it would be difficult to know which way causation ran.Does more education lead to greater democracy? Or are more democratic countries better at educating their citizens?A recent NBER paper compared a group of Kenyan girls in 69 primary school whose students were randomly selected to receive a scholarship with similar students in schools which received no such financial aid. Previous studies has shown that the scholarship programme led to higher test scores and increased the likelihood that girls enrolled in secondary school. Overall, it significantly increased the amount of education obtained. For the new study the authors tried to see how the extra schooling had affected the political and social attitude of the women in question. Findings suggested that education may make people more interested in improving their own lives but they may not necessarily see democracy as the way to do it. Even in established democracies, more education does not always mean either more active political participation or greater faith in democracy. Poorer and less educated people often vote in larger numbers than their more educated compatriots, who often express disdain for the messiness of democracy, yearning for the kind of government that would deal strongly with the corrupt and build highways,railway lines and bridges at a dizzying pace of authoritarian China.

144.Which of the following most aptly describes the central theme of the passage?

(a)Democratic nations are richer and have a better track record of educating their citizens.

(b) Education does not necessarily lead to greater enthusiasm for a democratic form of government

(c)Educated societies with autocratic form of government enjoy a better quality of life than democracies.

(d)Citizens can fulfill their personal aspirations only under a democratic form of government.

(e)Democracy makes citizens more intolerant as it does not restrict personal freedoms

144.(d)Option(d) has plenty of illustrations, references and structure to support it in the passage. Other options like (e) and (b) are true but not the central theme of the passage. Option (a) and (c) are not true

145.Which of the following is most similar in meaning to the word PROMOTES given in bold as used in the passage?(a)Up grades

(b)Prefers

(c)Recommends

(d)Advocates

(e)Publicizes

145.(d)PROMOTES means to advocate a particular cause.

146.What conclusion can be drawn from the statistics cited about Egypt’s education system?

(a)Job prospects have been on the rise in Egypt in recent times.

(b)Authoritarian leaders have played a vital role in reforming Egypt’s education system.

(c)Egypt has one of the youngest and best educated demographies in the world.

(d)Egypt is likely to be successful vibrant democracy.

(e)There has been a rise in education levels in Egypt in recent times.

146.(e)Arise from the 4% level to 7 %says that there is rise in education in Egypt

147.In the context of the passage which of the following characterize (s) democracies?

(1)Active participation of majority of educated citizens in electoral process.

(2)Fast paced economic growth and accountability of those in power.

(3)Better standards of living and access to higher education.

(a)All (1), (2) and (3)

(b)Only (2) and (3)

(c)Only (3)

(d)Only (1) and (2)

(e)None of these

147.(a) All of the options are mentioned in one or other part of the passage

148.What according to the author has led to uprisings in authoritarian countries?

(a)Lack of access to education.

(b)Vast numbers of uneducated and unemployable youth.

(c)Frustration with the existing system of governance.

(d)Unavailability of natural energy resources like coal and oil.

(e)Government’s overambitious plans for development.

148.(c)First line of the passage is self explanatory

149.Which of the following is/are true about China in the context of the passage?

(1)China’s citizens are in favor of a more representative form of government.

(2) China has made huge strides in infrastructure developments.

(3)China is in the midst of a political revolution.

(a)None

(b)Only (1)

(c)Only(1) and (3)

(d)Only (2)

(e)All (1), (2) and (3)

149.(b)Only option which can be linked with the passage is 1.Their people will agitate for greater political freedom,culminating in a shift to a more democratic form of government.

150.What does the phrase “messiness of democracy” convey in the context of the passage?

(a)Democratic nations are chaotic on account of individual freedoms.

(b)Most democratic countries frequently have violentre volts among their citizens.

(c)The divide between the poor and educated is growing wider in democracies.

(d)High levels of pollution on account of frantic pace of infrastructure development.

(e)Resigned acceptance of intrinsic corruption in the education system.

150.(c)Option(a) is wrong as this is not intended from the use of this phrase. Last part of passage has this phrase and poor-rich divide has been discussed their in voting pattern or why rich people even educated do not vote.Option (d) is out of the context. Option(e) can also be rejected as corruption is not the issue here