Ch.2 :- Classification – Introduction & Formulas


 In this Introduction & Formulas of  Word and alphabet Classification we cover basic concepts , trips , tricks and methods to solve classification problems of verbal reasoning.

Classification is a process of grouping various objects on the basis of their common properties. Classification, therefore, helps to make a homogeneous group from a large heterogeneous group. Questions on classification are designed to test candidate’s ability to classify given objects and find one which does not share the common property with the other objects of the group. Ouestions on classification can be asked in any form. Some of them have been given below:

1. Words Classification
In this type of classification, different objects are classified on the basis of common features/properties – names, places, uses, situations, origin, etc.

2. Alphabet Classification
In this type of classification, letters of alphabet are classified in a group using a particular method or rule. Rules or methods used for such classification are often simple, and hence can easily be understood.

3. Miscellaneous Classification
In this type of classification, any rule other than that described above can be used for classification or grouping. Questions on such pattern do not necessarily use the alphabets and words. Here, the numerics and other mathematical symbols can also be used.

All the possible classifications have been illustrated in the following examples.

Directions : In each of the following questions, a group of five items is given. Four of them share the common features whereas one of them is different from others. Choose the item which is different from the others.

Example 1

Ex.1. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which one does not belong to that group?

(a) Ears (b) Hands (c) Fingers (d) Eyes (e) Legs

Sol. Except fingers, all other parts of body are in pairs. Hence, option (c) is the correct answer.

Example 2

Ex. 2. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which one does not belong to that group?

(a) Bud (b) Branch (c) Leaf (d) Root (e) Plant

Sol. All items are the parts of a plant. Hence plant does not belong to the group. So, the answer is (e).

Example 3

Ex. 3. Find the odd man out.

(a) PSRQ (b) CGEF (c) JMLK (d)VYXW

Sol. The pattern used for classification is placement of alphabets in the order (+3, -1, -1). Since option (b)
does not follow the pattern, it is odd in the group.

Example 4

Ex. 4. Four out of the five pairs of numbers have the same relationships. Find the odd man out.

(a) 4 : 63 (b) 1 : 0 (c) 5 : 124 (d) 2 : 15 (e) 3 : 26

Sol. In the above classification, second number is one less than the cube of the first number. Option (d) does not belong to the group as it does not follow the pattern.

Example 5

Ex. 5. Find the odd man out.

(a) DEHG (b) RSVU (c) XYBA (d) LMQP (e) JKNM

Sol. Method used for the classification is placement of alphabets in the order (+ 1, +3, -1). Option (d) LMQP does not follow the method. Hence, it is the odd man out.

Example 6

Ex. 6. Find the odd man out.

(a) 32 : 15 (b) 86 : 42 (c) 56: 26 (d) 74: 36 (e) 38 : 18

Sol. Second number is one less than the half the first number. So, option (c) is our correct answer.

Example 7

Ex. 7. Four out of the five words given as alternatives are related to the word given in each question in the same way. Find the odd man out. FRIENDSHIP

(a) FRIEND (b) SHIP (c) FRESH (d)DRIP (e) FISH

Sol. In all the words except (d), letters have been selected in the forward directions. So option (d) is our correct answer.

Example 8

Ex. 8. Find the odd man out.

(a) Ring. (b) Bangle (c) Tyre (d) Plate (e) Nut

sol. Except (d), all items have holes. So, the correct answer is (d).