Ch-26 : Passage and Conclusion :- Exercise 1


Directions for Q. No. 1 to 5 :A passage is given below followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth on falsity.
Mark your answer as :

(a) if the inference is definitely true, i.e., it properly follows from the statement of facts given.

(b) if the inference is probably true though not definitely true in the light of the facts given.

(c) if the data are inadequate, i.e., from the facts given you can’t say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.

(d) if the inference is probably false though not ‘definitely false’ in the light of the facts given.

(e) if the inference is definitely false i.e., it can’t possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.

Passage I : In the absence of an integrated sugar-field to sale policy, the Indian sugar industry has become a victim of surplus production and price mismatch of sugarcane and finished sugar. Despite a lower estimated sugar production at around 12.8 million tonnes for 1996-97 against 16.7 million tonnes in the previous year, the total availability is put to 20.8 million tonnes including a carryover stock of 8 million tonnes from the previous year. Of this the domestic consumption may not exceed 13.5 million tonnes. Though the industry could export 10.5 million tonnes to different countries during 1995-96, this year’s export policy, existing norms and international market conditions may bring down the export quantity to half a million tonnes.

1. There may be a fall in the sugar price during 1997-98.

Answer & Solution
1(a) Conclusion speaks of probability of the fall in price for the year 1997-98. It is given in the passage that there has been surplus production in the year 1996-97. Hence, conclusion is definitely true

2. The quantum of current year’s sugar production is close to the envisaged .

Answer & Solution
2(e) Conclusion is definitely false because it is clearly mentioned that production of sugar is 20.8 million tonnes against an estimate of 12.8 million tonnes,’

3. India’s sugar export was the highest in recent times during 1995-96.

Answer & Solution
3(c) No data is given regarding the comparative sugar export during 1995-96.

4. India need not import sugar during the next few years.

Answer & Solution
4(b) Since there has been surplus production of sugar, hence it is likely that India will not require to import sugar during next few years.

5. India’s export policy has made the sugar price. non-competitive in the international market.

Answer & Solution
5(c) Data given in the passage is not adequate to say anything about the conclusion

=> Directions for Q. No.6 to 11 : Questions in the form of conclusion are based on the passage given below.

Mark your answer as :

(a) if the conclusion is definitely true,

(b) if the conclusion is probably true,

(c) if data given in the passage is inadequate to answer,

(d) if conclusion is probably false,

(e) if conclusion is definitely false.

Passage II : Urban services have not expanded fast enough to cope with urban expansion. Low investment allocations have tended to be underspent. Both public (e.g., water and sewage) and private ( e.g., low income area housing) infrastructure quality has declined. The impact of the environment in which children live and the supporting services available to them when they fall ill, seems clear. The decline in average food availability and the rise in absolute poverty, point in the same unsatisfactory directions.

6. There is nothing to boast about urban services.

Answer & Solution
6(a) It is clearly mentioned in the opening lines of the passage that urban services have deteriorated due to meagre finances and related supports.

7. The public transport system is in the hand of private sector.

Answer & Solution
7(c) It is not mentioned anywhere in the passage that public transport system is in the hands of private sector.

8. Birth rate is higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas.

Answer & Solution
8(c) Data regarding comparative birth rate are not given in the passage. Hence, data is inadequate.”

9. Low cost urban housing is on the priority.

Answer & Solution
9(b) It is given in the passage that private infrastructure quality e.g., low income area housing has declined. Therefore, it is very likely that low cost .urban housing gets priority.

10. The environment around plays a important role on the health status.

Answer & Solution
10(a) This is clearly given in the passage that environment plays an important role on the health status. Hence, conclusion definitely follows from the passage of a person.

11. Though adequate provisions of funds were made but they were received underspent.

Answer & Solution
11(e) Conclusion is definitely false as it is given in the second line of the passage that low investment allocations have tended to be underspent.

=> Directions for Q. No. 12 to 16 : Using the above answer pattern, mark your answer as (a), (b), (c), (d) or (e) for the conclusions on the basis of the passage given below:

Passage III : There is some controversy about the percentage of population below the poverty line in India. The criteria for the poverty line is based on person’s nutritional requirement in terms of calories. It is assumed that the minimum nutritional requirement per person per day in rural areas is 2,400 calories whereas it is 2,200 calories in urban areas. If the household is unable to bear the expenditure for this level of nutrition, it is categorised as below the poverty line. There is also a view that, alongwith calories, the amount of protein intake be treated as a criterion as it is related to physical energy, mental alertness and resistance to infection.

12. Many Indians, who are below the poverty line, get necessary amount of proteins.

Answer & Solution
12(c) Data given in the passage is inadequate

13. People living above the poverty line are less likely to suffer from infections.

Answer & Solution
13(b) It is given in the last line of the passage that protein is related to resistance to infections. Since people above poverty-line may get sufficient amount of protein intake, and so are likely to be less sufferer from infections.

14. India’s poverty alleviation programmes can only succeed after reaching agreement about the poverty line.

Answer & Solution
14(c) Nothing has been discussed in the passage regarding agreement about poverty line.

15. People in urban areas are less physically weak compared to people in rural areas.

Answer & Solution
15(b) It is probably true because calorie requirement per person in the urban areas is less than that of the rural areas. I

16. In other countries, there is no controversy about defining the poverty line.

Answer & Solution
16(c) Nothing has been given in the passage regarding the pove~ line in the other countries.

=> Directions for Q. No. 17 to 21 : Answer these questions and mark your answer (a), (b) (c) (d) or (e) using the above pattern. Questions are based on the passage given below:

Passage IV : A radical new surgery procedure launched at, not long ago in India, is holding out fresh hope for patients of cardiac myopathy, or enlargement of the heart. The technique new in India, allows patients to go home two weeks after the operation to lead a near-normal sedentary life. Cardiac myopathy is a condition that has a variety of causative factors. An attack from one of the 20 identified viruses, parasite infection, long-term alcohol abuse and blood pressure could bring it on, and in rare cases, it could follow child-birth and is even known to run in families. The condition is marked by an increase in the size of heart’s chambers and a decrease in the efficiency of pumping.

17. The cardiac myopathy slows down the heart beat.

Answer & Solution
17(b) Conc1usion is probably true because it is given in the last line that cardiac myopathy is a result of enlargement of heart’s chamber and decrease in the efficiency of pumping.

18. Cardiac myopathy is hereditary.

Answer & Solution
18(a) Conclusion is definitely true as it is given in the passage that cardiac myopathy could follow child birth.

19. Earlier, the patients suffering from the cardiac myopathy were required to travel abroad for such operations.

Answer & Solution
19(c) Data given in the passage are inadequate to analyse this conclusion as nothing has been given regarding the facility available for this disease earlier in India.

20. The new technique was never tried in India in the past.

Answer & Solution
20(a) Opening line of the passage reads “A radical new surgical procedure launched not long ago is holding fresh hopes”. This implies that this surgery has not been used in India earlier.

21. The efficiency of the heart is inversely proportional to the size of the heart.

Answer & Solution
21(a) Conclusion is definitely true from the last line of the passage that the condition is marked by an increase in the size of heart’s chamber and a decrease in efficiency of pumping.

=> Directions for Q. No. 22 to 26 : Read the following passage carefully and then answer the questions that follow: Mark your answer as :

(a) if conclusion is definitely true,

(b) if conclusion is probably true,

(c) if information is inadequate to answer,

(d) if conclusion is probably false,

(e) if conclusion is definitely false.

Passage V : “Indian rice exporters might face tough competition in the international market”, allege exporters. International demand for Indian rice surfaced, either due to its low prices or due to the crop failure in other competitive countries. However, our competitors are having a good crop of rice this year and which indeed sounds as a threat for India, they pointed out. The leading producing countries like Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, USA and Pakistan are bringing down their prices at par with Indian prices. Internationally; these countries have reduced their prices by Rs 50 per tonne in lower grades, coming almost at par with Indian prices. Indian rice, currently is quoting between $ 260 and $ 265 per tonne. However, in high grade, the difference still remains high. Therefore, India can expect to be competitive in high grades provided the quality and deliveries are ensured in time. Pakistan is our main competitor and it has reduced its prices by 15% coming almost in line with the Indian prices. The very fact that international producers have started to reduce their prices is a signal for Indian exporters to gear up for 2006-07.

22. Indian has no potential threat in the international market for exporting of rice.

Answer & Solution
22(e) Conclusion is definitely false as it has been mentioned in the passage that Indian rice exporters are facing tough competition.

23. Quality and delivery of goods in time are the two main components for being in the forefront.

Answer & Solution
23(a) It has been given in the passage that India has to ensure quality and delivery on time to be competitive in the international market.

24. To remain in the international market, India should reduce its price.

Answer & Solution
24(a) Since other countries have reduced prices, hence, India should also reduce the prices to be in competition. Hence, the given conclusion is definitely true.

25. India should increase production of rice to gear up for 2006-07.

Answer & Solution
25(a) The given conclusion is definitely true, as to cope with the competition, either India has to increase production or reduce the prices.

26. Indian crops were inferior in quality than the leading rice producing countries.

Answer & Solution
26(c) Data given in the passage is inadequate as nothing has been given as to the quality of rice.

=> Directions for Q. No. 27 to 31 : Read the following passage carefully and then answer the questions in the form of conclusions based on the passage. Mark your answer as :

(a) if the conclusion is definitely true,

(b) if the conclusion is probably true,

(c) if the data are inadequate to answer,

(d) if the conclusion is probably false,

(e) if the conclusion is definitely false.

Passage VI: The most empirical argument in favour of prayer is that it relieves the mind of tension, which is the natural concomitant of a life of hurry and worry. It neutralises mental repressions and purifies the subconsciousness. It releases an extra amount of hope and energy and thus enables a person to face life squarely. Life is not all sweetness, enjoyment and success; it is drudgery, pain and failure too.

27. Prayer is an important part of all religions.

Answer & Solution
27(c) Data is not adequate as it has not been given anywhere in the passage whether prayer forms an important part of all religions or not.

28. People are interested in finding out effects of prayer.

Answer & Solution
28(e) Conclusion is definitely false because effects of prayer are argueable as per opening line of the passage.

29. Subconsciousness plays no role in our life.

Answer & Solution
29(e) Conclusion is definitely false because it has been given in the passage that prayer purifies the subconsciousness. Hence, subconscious has a role in our life.

30. There are some arguments for the benefits of prayer, which can be tested.

Answer & Solution
30(a) Conclusion is definitely true as it has been given in the opening line of the passage.

31. Prayer, by direct miracles, removes hurdles and difficulties from our life. ?

Answer & Solution
31(e) Conclusion is definitely false because as in the given passage, prayer has an indirect impact on the life of human beings.

=> Directions for Q. No. 32 to 96 : Same as Q. No. 27 to 31.

Passage VII : According to trade estimates, the black pepper crop will be in the range of 75,000 to 90,000 tonnes during the pepper season from Nov, 2005 to Oct, 2006. The crop will thus be the double of that for 2004-05 season. Besides good monsoon, the record production is attributed to the crash programme launched in Kerala by the State Government last June. Although 80% of the country’s total black pepper production is from Kerala, the yield per hectare is low at 300 kg as compared to 550 kg in Indonesia and 1,200 kg in Brazil.

32. India exports black pepper more than Brazil.

Answer & Solution
32(c) Data given in the passage is inadequate because nothing has been discussed regarding the comparative export figures between India and Brazil.

33. The black pepper crop during 2004-05 was about 30,000′ tonnes.

Answer & Solution
33(e) Conclusion is definitely false because the lowest estimated production in 1989-90 is 75,000 tonnes, double that of 1988-89. Hence, the production of 1988-89 will be more than 30,000 tonnes.

34. In no other State in the country, black pepper yield is more than 300 kg per hectare.

Answer & Solution
34(b) Conclusion is probably true because the state of Kerala has dominated in black pepper production

35. The Central Government helped Kerala Government in implementing the crash programme.

Answer & Solution
35(c) Data is inadequate to say anything about Central help to Kerala for the black pepper production.

36. Good water supply is needed for cultivating black pepper.

Answer & Solution
36(a) It is given in th~passage that good monsoon has attributed to the good production of the black pepper, hence, the conclusion is definitely true.

Passage VIII : The only dark cloud in the economic horizon is the rather unsatisfactory foreign exchange and one may hope that the industry will play its role in improving it by contributing to its export. The all round progress of our company is continuing. I am happy to report that during the first half of the current year (April-Sep,1989), there has been further improvement in its working.

37. The country is having inadequate foreign exchange reserves.

Answer & Solution
37(a) Conclusion is definitely true as it is clear from the opening line of the passage which reads “The only dark cloud in the economic horizon is the rather unsatisfactory foreign exchange”.

38. The current financial year of the company will end on 3st March, 1990.

Answer & Solution
38(a) Conclusion is definitely true as it is clear from the last line that first half of the current year is from April to September.

39. In foreign countries, there is no demand for the products manufactured by our company.

Answer & Solution
39(c) Data is inadequate to say anything about the demand of Indian products in foreign countries.

40. The Government of the country has asked the company to export its goods.

Answer & Solution
40(c) Data is inadequate.

41. The report is presented by the Chairman of the company to the share holders.

Answer & Solution
41(c) Data is inadequate as it is not given in the passage that Chairman of the company presents its report to the shareholders.