Ch-26 : Passage and Conclusion :- Exercise 2


Passage I : Of the roughly 4,40,000 children who currently languish in America’s foster-care system, 20,000 are available for adoption, most of them are older children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Among the adoptable children, 44% are white and 43% are black. But 67% of all families waiting to adopt are white, and many of them are eager to take a black child. The hurdles, however, are often formidable. Though only three US States – Arkansas, California and Minnesota – have laws promoting race matching in adoptions, 40 other favour the practice.

1. Children beyond 12 years of age are less suitable for adoption.

Answer & Solution
1(b) Conclusion is probably true because most of the adoptable children belong to the age-group between the ages of 6 and 12 years.

2. White children are being preferred for adoption by majority of black families.

Answer & Solution
2(c) Data is not adequate in the passage.

3. Majority of the US States have laws that discourage the practice of adoption.

Answer & Solution
3(e) Definitely false. All the states encourage adoption. Only three states promote adoption with certain restriction.

4. Among the adoptable children, at least 10% are neither black nor white.

Answer & Solution
4(a) Definitely true. Because total number of black and white children out of 100 = 44 + 43 = 87 and the remaining = 13%.

5. Two-third of the white families are waiting to adopt a black child.

Answer & Solution
5(b) The statement is probably true, because of. (2/3) x 100 = 3 66.66%, which is near to 67%

Passage II: Data available from the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) compares, separately for boys and girls, the average height recorded during 1979 with the average for the period 1974-79 at different ages in the 10 States covered by the NNMB survey. The 1979 height turns out to be neither uniformly higher nor uniformly lower than the 1974-79 average height at ages 2,5 and 9 in most of the States. However, the comparison at age 13 is more meaningful as it represents the cumulative result of childhood growth. At the age of 13 years, the average height recorded for boys in 1979 is lower than the average for 1974-79 in only one State, Karnataka. For girls at this age, the average height recorded in 1979 turns out to be lower than the 1974-79 average in four States-Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. In all other States, the 1979 average was greater than or equal to the 1974-79 average.

6. There are only two institutes – NIN and NNMB which have collected data on average height.

Answer & Solution
6(c) It is not given in the passage that there are only two institutes. There can also be more thh two institutes. So, data is inadequate.

7. The data from Karnataka was collected by both NIN and NNMB.

Answer & Solution
7(a) It is given in the passage that data from Karnataka were collected by both the institutes. So, the conclusion is definitely true

8. In Karnataka, the average age recorded in 1979 for both boys and girls was lower-than that for 1974-79.

Answer & Solution
8(e) The last line of the passage indicates that the height of girls is not lower in Karnataka.

9. More States indicated higher average in 1979 as compared to that of 1974-79.

Answer & Solution
9(a) It is very clear from the last line of the passage.

10. Both the Institutes NIN and NNMB collected data from 10 States only.

Answer & Solution
10(c) It is not given in the passage that institutes – NIN an NNMB collected data from 10 States only.

11. Separate statistics for boys and girls help understand the data in a better way.

Answer & Solution
11(b) Conclusion seems to be probably true as it can be inferred from the passage that separate statistics certainly help

12. There may not be large differences in the height of boys and girls from 2nd to 5th year.

Answer & Solution
12(b) Conclusion is probably true as it is clearly given in the passage that at the ages of 2, 5 and 9, comparative. heights neither turn out to be uniformly higher nor lower.

Passage III : Doordarshan has undoubtedly helped popularise yoga among the people especially city-dwellers. But performing various ‘asanas’ without adequate instructions could be hazardous, according to a renowned ‘yoga expert’ who has conducted hundreds of yoga shivirs (camps). He says several people, who tried to learn yoga through the programme of Doordarshan, have come to him complaining of pain in different parts of their body. He explains that the asanas involve a complicated but scientific technique of breathing which controls the flow of oxygen in various parts of the body under calculated stress.

13. TV programmes on yoga have successfully replaced personal guidance by ‘yoga experts’.

Answer & Solution
13(e) Definitely false. It is given in the passage that persons doing asanas complain of pains. Hence, it is definitely false to say that TV programmes on yoga have successfully replaced personal guidance by the ‘yoga’ expert’.

14. Yoga exercises (asanas) are quite safe for any person.

Answer & Solution
14(e) It is given in the passage that without adequate instructions, yoga could be hazardous. Hence, the conclusion is definitely false.

15. Many TV viewers of yoga programmes are unable to master the scientific technique of breathing while performing ‘asanas’.

Answer & Solution
15(e) It is given in the passage that ‘asanas’ involve scientific technique of breathing which is the main reason for many complaints of pain.

16. Uncontrolled flow of oxygen in parts of the body causes pain in those parts.

Answer & Solution
16(b) Conclusion is probably true because uncontrolled flow of oxygen jn various parts of body causes pain in these parts.  

17. Quite a large number of ‘yoga experts’ are available.

Answer & Solution
17(c) Data is inadequate as it is not given in the passage that quite a large number of ‘yoga experts’ are available.

Passage IV : There is more bad news on food front. It now appears certain that there will be a shortfall of about 9 million tonnes in the food production in the current kharif season, which in turn means 5 million tonnes less than the production achieved in the last Kharif season. However, rice procurement may only be partially affected since West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh have had sufficient rainfall while Punjab, the major contributor to the central pool, is less dependent on rainfall. Still the overall availability of rice may go down by more than 4 million tonnes. There may be worse news ahead.

18. There is no canal water facility in West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.

Answer & Solution
18(b) Since West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh are dependent on rainfall, hence it is likely that these States do not have canal facility.

19. The procurement price of rice will increase this year.

Answer & Solution
19(b) There are chances of rise in procurement price on account of shortfall of food production in the Kharif season.

20. Rice is mainly produced in Kharif season.

Answer & Solution
20(a) It can be directly inferred from the passage.

21. Last year, there was a deficit production of rice by 5 million tonnes.

Answer & Solution
21(c) It is only given in the passage that this year, there is 5 million tonnes less production than the last season.

22. It is likely that production of rice will be below the normal level the next year.

Answer & Solution
22(b) It is likely that production of rice will be affected next year which is clear from the last line of the passage that there may be worst news ahead.

Passage V : A worrying feature of Indian urbanisation has been its tendency to increase pressure on the inner cities. The first results of the 2001 census suggest that the density of population in urban areas is within manageable limits, with most cities, including Greater Bombay, being well below the 23,000 per square m mark, set by Kolkata. But within several of the older cities, the walled areas have high densities which exert pressure on the outdated amenities in these area, a pressure that is accentuated by the poor maintenance of housing as well as other assets in the inner cities. The inner cities were designed for a pattern of urban life far removed from what exists today. The makers of narrow winding lanes could hardly have anticipated modern transportation.

23. The density of population in the inner city of Greater Bombay is the highest in India.

Answer & Solution
23(e) It is given in the passage that as per 1991 census, density of population in the inner city of Greater Bombay is within manageable limits. Hence, conclusion is definitely false as it contradicts the statement.

24. At the time of planning the cities in the past, the use of bigger roads was envisaged by the planners.

Answer & Solution
24(e) It is clear from the last line of the passage.

25. The pace of Indian urbanisation is much slower by international standards.

Answer & Solution
25(c) Data is not given in the passage as to the comparative urbanisation standard.

26. The rate of growth in density of population in the inner cities has been more than that in surrounding areas.

Answer & Solution
26(b) It can be indirectly inferred from the opening lines of the passage.

27. The increase in density of population in urban areas has outgrown the increase in amenities.

Answer & Solution
27(a) It is given in the passage that high density of population exerts pressure on the outdated amenities.

Passage VI : A survey in India indicated that in the core section of the companies, which were analysed, the compensation package for executives was divided into several fringe benefit groups. The number of items included in it rose as one ascended the management hierarchy. In many companies, provision was made for transportation and medical and housing assistance. A few companies also provided for children’s education or permitted family allowances. Some of them have now adopted a specialised approaces called the ‘cafetaria approach’ in salary fixation. What is sought here is that the benefits must meet an executive’s needs. Therefore, an appropriate selection has to be made of the benefits in tenus of his needs after consulting him. Thus, this approach would individualise the system as the final choice is left to the executive concerned.

28. There is a standard universal compensation package for executives in most companies.

Answer & Solution
28(e) It is given in the passage that benefits in package rises as the person rises in management hierarchy. Hence, the conclusion Is definitely false.

29. Fringe benefits offered by many companies take care of most of the basic physiological needs of the executives.

Answer & Solution
29(a) It is directly inferred from the passage that most of the companies take care of most of the basic physiological needs of executives like medical, transportation and education.

30. While designing the compensation package for executives, certain companies try to establish a match between needs and benefits.

Answer & Solution
30(a) Yes, this approach is known as ‘cafetaria approach’ where needs and benefits of the executives are matched.

31. Now-a-days most of the companies in India are designing their compensation packages on the lines of such packages offered by the companies in foreign countries.

Answer & Solution
31(c) Data given in the passage is inadequate.

32. The survey conducted in India on compensation package included employees working at different levels, including executives.

Answer & Solution
32(e) Survey was done only for executives.

Passage VII : The video magazine has launched a cultural revolution in India that has delighted viewers and confirmed the fears of the politicians about the power of video. The earliest to start was Newstrack, followed by two others on similar lines. It is said that the largest selling video magazine sells about 20,000 copies of its monthly 90- mill cassettes a Rs 150 a piece. The viewership of this itself is estimated to be 5-6 millions.

33. The viewership of all the video magazines together may be around 14 millions.

Answer & Solution
33(b) In the last line it is mentioned that estimated viewership of newstrack is around 5-6 millions. Therefore, the total viewership of all the three ~ magazines will be around 14 million.

34. Video magazines will not be well accepted by TV viewer in India.

Answer & Solution
34(e) From the opening line, it is very clear that the advent of video-magzines has delighted the viewers.

35. All video magazines in India are brought out once a month.

Answer & Solution
35(c) Data is inadequate.

36. All video magazines in India are private owned.

Answer & Solution
36(c) Data is inadequate, as we can’t conclude from the passage whether the video magazines are privately owned.

37. The total sales revenue from all of the video magazines exceeds Rs 30-35 lakhs.

Answer & Solution
37(a) 20,000 x 150 = Rs 30 lakhs.

Passage VIII : The Haldia project, after being in a planning stage for many years, will ultimately become a reality , with the joint participation of the Government of West Ben and the House of Tatas. The letter of intent has been received in Nov, 1991. The project will fulfil a long-felt need of modernisation of industry in Eastern India. The economic development of this region has already suffered a lot.

38. The planning of Haldia project started in the year 19.

Answer & Solution
38(c) On the basis of passage it can’t be said that the planning of the project started in the year 1998. Hence, data is inadequate.

39. There is no industry in Eastern India.

Answer & Solution
39(e) It is clearly mentioned in the passage .that Haldia project will fulfil long-felt need of modernisation of industry. in Eastern India. It means that industries already exist in Eastern India.

40. Apart from West Bengal, other neighbouring States also be benefitted by the project.

Answer & Solution
40(b) It can be inferred indirectly from the passage that neighbouring States will be benefitted too from the project.

41. Implementation work on the project has started.

Answer & Solution
41(c) Data inadequate. Nothing has been given regarding the implementation work on the project

42. The cost of the project would be equally shared by Government of West Bengal and the House of Tatas.

Answer & Solution
42(c) Though it is given that project is being supported by the West Bengal Government and House of Tatas. But, it is not given whether the cost will be shared equally.