Ch-26 : Passage and Conclusion :- Exercise 2
Passage I : Of the roughly 4,40,000 children who currently languish in America’s foster-care system, 20,000 are available for adoption, most of them are older children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Among the adoptable children, 44% are white and 43% are black. But 67% of all families waiting to adopt are white, and many of them are eager to take a black child. The hurdles, however, are often formidable. Though only three US States – Arkansas, California and Minnesota – have laws promoting race matching in adoptions, 40 other favour the practice.
1. Children beyond 12 years of age are less suitable for adoption.
2. White children are being preferred for adoption by majority of black families.
3. Majority of the US States have laws that discourage the practice of adoption.
4. Among the adoptable children, at least 10% are neither black nor white.
5. Two-third of the white families are waiting to adopt a black child.
Passage II: Data available from the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) compares, separately for boys and girls, the average height recorded during 1979 with the average for the period 1974-79 at different ages in the 10 States covered by the NNMB survey. The 1979 height turns out to be neither uniformly higher nor uniformly lower than the 1974-79 average height at ages 2,5 and 9 in most of the States. However, the comparison at age 13 is more meaningful as it represents the cumulative result of childhood growth. At the age of 13 years, the average height recorded for boys in 1979 is lower than the average for 1974-79 in only one State, Karnataka. For girls at this age, the average height recorded in 1979 turns out to be lower than the 1974-79 average in four States-Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. In all other States, the 1979 average was greater than or equal to the 1974-79 average.
6. There are only two institutes – NIN and NNMB which have collected data on average height.
7. The data from Karnataka was collected by both NIN and NNMB.
8. In Karnataka, the average age recorded in 1979 for both boys and girls was lower-than that for 1974-79.
9. More States indicated higher average in 1979 as compared to that of 1974-79.
10. Both the Institutes NIN and NNMB collected data from 10 States only.
11. Separate statistics for boys and girls help understand the data in a better way.
12. There may not be large differences in the height of boys and girls from 2nd to 5th year.
Passage III : Doordarshan has undoubtedly helped popularise yoga among the people especially city-dwellers. But performing various ‘asanas’ without adequate instructions could be hazardous, according to a renowned ‘yoga expert’ who has conducted hundreds of yoga shivirs (camps). He says several people, who tried to learn yoga through the programme of Doordarshan, have come to him complaining of pain in different parts of their body. He explains that the asanas involve a complicated but scientific technique of breathing which controls the flow of oxygen in various parts of the body under calculated stress.
13. TV programmes on yoga have successfully replaced personal guidance by ‘yoga experts’.
14. Yoga exercises (asanas) are quite safe for any person.
15. Many TV viewers of yoga programmes are unable to master the scientific technique of breathing while performing ‘asanas’.
16. Uncontrolled flow of oxygen in parts of the body causes pain in those parts.
17. Quite a large number of ‘yoga experts’ are available.
Passage IV : There is more bad news on food front. It now appears certain that there will be a shortfall of about 9 million tonnes in the food production in the current kharif season, which in turn means 5 million tonnes less than the production achieved in the last Kharif season. However, rice procurement may only be partially affected since West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh have had sufficient rainfall while Punjab, the major contributor to the central pool, is less dependent on rainfall. Still the overall availability of rice may go down by more than 4 million tonnes. There may be worse news ahead.
18. There is no canal water facility in West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.
19. The procurement price of rice will increase this year.
20. Rice is mainly produced in Kharif season.
21. Last year, there was a deficit production of rice by 5 million tonnes.
22. It is likely that production of rice will be below the normal level the next year.
Passage V : A worrying feature of Indian urbanisation has been its tendency to increase pressure on the inner cities. The first results of the 2001 census suggest that the density of population in urban areas is within manageable limits, with most cities, including Greater Bombay, being well below the 23,000 per square m mark, set by Kolkata. But within several of the older cities, the walled areas have high densities which exert pressure on the outdated amenities in these area, a pressure that is accentuated by the poor maintenance of housing as well as other assets in the inner cities. The inner cities were designed for a pattern of urban life far removed from what exists today. The makers of narrow winding lanes could hardly have anticipated modern transportation.
23. The density of population in the inner city of Greater Bombay is the highest in India.
24. At the time of planning the cities in the past, the use of bigger roads was envisaged by the planners.
25. The pace of Indian urbanisation is much slower by international standards.
26. The rate of growth in density of population in the inner cities has been more than that in surrounding areas.
27. The increase in density of population in urban areas has outgrown the increase in amenities.
Passage VI : A survey in India indicated that in the core section of the companies, which were analysed, the compensation package for executives was divided into several fringe benefit groups. The number of items included in it rose as one ascended the management hierarchy. In many companies, provision was made for transportation and medical and housing assistance. A few companies also provided for children’s education or permitted family allowances. Some of them have now adopted a specialised approaces called the ‘cafetaria approach’ in salary fixation. What is sought here is that the benefits must meet an executive’s needs. Therefore, an appropriate selection has to be made of the benefits in tenus of his needs after consulting him. Thus, this approach would individualise the system as the final choice is left to the executive concerned.
28. There is a standard universal compensation package for executives in most companies.
29. Fringe benefits offered by many companies take care of most of the basic physiological needs of the executives.
30. While designing the compensation package for executives, certain companies try to establish a match between needs and benefits.
31. Now-a-days most of the companies in India are designing their compensation packages on the lines of such packages offered by the companies in foreign countries.
32. The survey conducted in India on compensation package included employees working at different levels, including executives.
Passage VII : The video magazine has launched a cultural revolution in India that has delighted viewers and confirmed the fears of the politicians about the power of video. The earliest to start was Newstrack, followed by two others on similar lines. It is said that the largest selling video magazine sells about 20,000 copies of its monthly 90- mill cassettes a Rs 150 a piece. The viewership of this itself is estimated to be 5-6 millions.
33. The viewership of all the video magazines together may be around 14 millions.
34. Video magazines will not be well accepted by TV viewer in India.
35. All video magazines in India are brought out once a month.
36. All video magazines in India are private owned.
37. The total sales revenue from all of the video magazines exceeds Rs 30-35 lakhs.
Passage VIII : The Haldia project, after being in a planning stage for many years, will ultimately become a reality , with the joint participation of the Government of West Ben and the House of Tatas. The letter of intent has been received in Nov, 1991. The project will fulfil a long-felt need of modernisation of industry in Eastern India. The economic development of this region has already suffered a lot.
38. The planning of Haldia project started in the year 19.
39. There is no industry in Eastern India.
40. Apart from West Bengal, other neighbouring States also be benefitted by the project.
41. Implementation work on the project has started.
42. The cost of the project would be equally shared by Government of West Bengal and the House of Tatas.