Ch-26 : Passage and Conclusion :- Exercise 3


Passage I : Years of international experience and debates on the question of the long-term viability of large multi-purpose projects have by now yielded enough evidence for us to unhesitatingly conclude that all such projects are counter-productive and anti-poor. As such, given the body of information available on the subject, the advocacy of such a project on the part of those who ought to know better must be seen as an irresponsible act.

1. The proposed project is a replica of a large multi-purpose in some other country.

Answer & Solution
Ans.B Since the conclusion regarding the long term viability of the projects has been arrived at after the years of international experience, hence, it is probable that proposed project is the replica of the large multi-purpose projects in other countries.

2. Most of the international organisations support the idea of large multi-purpose projects.

Answer & Solution
Ans.C Data is inadequate.

3. In the international arena the controversy on the long-term viability of large multi-purpose projects ended decades ago.

Answer & Solution
Ans. E Conclusion is definitely false because the controversy on the long-term viability relates to the present.

4. Some people are in favour of setting up of large multi-purpose projects.

Answer & Solution
Ans. A It is clear from the last lines of the passage

5. People advocating large multi-purpose projects are not aware of its ill-effects.

Answer & Solution
Ans.B It is very probable on the basis of the. last lines of the passage.

6. The construction of large multi-purpose is not a recent idea.

Answer & Solution
Ans.A As it relates to the years – of long debates and international research.

Passage II : In the context of computers, the hardware specialities like the tendency of research connected with human factors, the design of the workstations, key boards, visual displays, etc are being concentrated, through the literature connected with interface and software problems, has recently been on the increase. There are two reasons for it. The first reason in the light of the increasing powers of computers is that the designers have got an opportunity to select and organise that technique which the user follows in communicating the message. The second is that the human factors in research organisations have deviated from physical specialities of self-improving work-system and gone to the psychological dimensions of the man-machine interaction.

7. In the field of computers, a change has taken place in the approach of the human factors research organisations.

Answer & Solution
Ans.A It is very clear from the opening lines and the theme of the passage that conclusion is definitely true.

8. The human factors research organisations do not help in designing the software system. They help only in the evaluation of ultimate production.

Answer & Solution
Ans.E Last line of the passage totally contradicts the conclusion

9. The physical specialities of work area are less important than their psychological dimension.

Answer & Solution
Ans.B The last sentence of the passage indicates that the conclusion is probably true.

10. There has been a systematic progress in the basic computer techniques.

Answer & Solution
Ans.C Data is not adequate.

11. How the user communicates message through computer hardware, is supposed to be the hardware area of human research. 

Answer & Solution
Ans.B Th-e first reason given in the passage indicates that the conclusion is probably true.

12. The tools and methods of human research organisations have also undergone a change.

Answer & Solution
Ans.C We donot find any data regarding tools and methods of human research organisations, hence data is inadequate.

13. The human research organisations in the field of computers, had been started two decades ago.

Answer & Solution
Ans.C It is not given in the passage when this organisation had been started, hence data is inadequate.

=> Directions : Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.
Mark your answer as :

(a) if the inference in ‘definitely true’ i.e., it properly follows from the statement of facts given.

(b) if the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’ in the light of the facts given.

(c) if the data is inadequate i.e., from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.

(d) if the inference is ‘probably false’ though not ‘definitely false’ in the light of the facts given.

(e) if the inference is ‘definitely false’ i.e., it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.

Passage III : From the beginning of the new year, the good news continues on the economic front. Following on the heels of encouraging GDP growth figures for the second quarter, we now have happy tiding on the trade-front as well. November 2002 saw the country’s exports record a healthy 16% increase compared to the corresponding period last year. With this, the growth rate in exports for the first eight months of the current fiscal now stands at a robust 16%. Of course, part of the reason for this apparently encouraging performance is because the base effect exports actually fell 0.8% during 2000-2001. But that is only part of the reason. For the rest, recovery in global trade and to give credit where it is due, concerted efforts by exporters have played no small role.  (SBI PO 2003)

14. The percentage growth in exports during 2002-2003 was mainly due to the decreased volume of exports during 2001-02.

Answer & Solution
Ans.E It is clearly mentioned that the decreased volume of exports during 2001-02 is not the main reason for the percentage growth in exports during 2002-03.

15. The efforts put in by the Indian exporters were comparatively less than their counterparts in developed countries.

Answer & Solution
Ans.C Such type of comparision is not given in the passage

16. There has been substantial increase in the extent of trade allover the world during the last financial year.

Answer & Solution
Ans.A From the last line of the passage, it is clear that the inference is definitely true.

17. During 2001-02, the quantum of country’s exports was about three-fourth of that in 2002-03.

Answer & Solution
Ans.B Inference is probably true

18. There has been consistent drop in quantum of exports during last three years.

Answer & Solution
Ans.E Inference is probably false

Passage IV : Cotton ace rage in India during the current year has fallen by 10% as cotton growers have moved on cultivation of other cash crops. This is the result of the cotton glut in world markets in post-September 11 and the consequent slowdown in the world economy. But this scenario brought with it benefits to one segment of the industry-yarn manufacturers as they, now get higher prices for their products. Some yarn manufactures too had stocked up on low priced cotton last year. The combined effect of all this is evident in the rise in net profits and net margins of yarn manufacturers. (PNB Management Trainee 2003)

19. World economy witnessed an upward trend during pre-September 11 period.

Answer & Solution
Ans.A It’ is given in the passage that world economy has witnessed a slowdown in post -September 11 which means that world economy was strong in pre-September 11 period.

20. The farmers will again grow cotton next year due to increased price of cotton yarn.

Answer & Solution
Ans.B It is given that yam market has witnessed a strong position. Therefore, it is likely that farmers will grow cotton next year. Hence, conclusion is probably true.

21. Land used for growing cotton in India is conducive to grow other cash crops.

Answer & Solution
Ans.A Since farmers have swiched over to other crops it means that land is conducive to grow other cash crop.

22. The yarn manufacturers have marginally suffered during post-September 11 period.

Answer & Solution
Ans.E Yam manufacturers have gained substantially, hence conclusion is definitely false.

23. There has been a huge drop in the supply of cotton during the current year.

Answer & Solution
Ans.E It has been clearly mentioned that in current year i.e., post-September 11, there has been cotton glut in the world market. Hence, conclusion is definitely false.

24. There has been shortage of cotton in the world market last year.

Answer & Solution
Ans.E Conclusion is definitely false.

=> Directions for Q. No. 25 to 29 : Each of the questions below has an inference drawn out of the passage below. Mark your answer as: (MAT May 2006)

(a) if the inference is ‘definitely true’

(b) if the data provided is inadequate

(c) if the inference is ‘probably true’

(d) if the inference is ‘definitely false’

Ministry of Environment and Forest has granted environmental clearance to the Karkatla open-cast expansion project of the Central Coal Fields Ltd in Jharkhand that envisages exploitation of non-cooking coal reserves. The present production level of 0.8 million tonnes is proposed to be expanded to 1.5 million tonnes per annum at an estimated cost of Rs 67.82 crore under the project. The total land area requirement for the proposed mining activities is about 651 hectares which includes about one-sixth of it as forest land.

25. The expansion plan would require about 100 hectares of forest land.

Answer & Solution
Ans.D

26. Karkatla open-cost mine is the only one of non-cooking coal in the country.

Answer & Solution
Ans.C

27. There is no demand for non-cooking coal.

Answer & Solution
Ans.D

28. The production cost of one tonne of non-cooking coal from Karkatla mine will be about Rs 450.

Answer & Solution
Ans.A

29. Environment concern gets less priority over the need of the coal.

Answer & Solution
Ans.B