Ch-26 : Passage and Conclusion :- Introduction & Formula


In this type of questions a passage is given on any topic followed by conclusions in the form of statements. A candidate is required to mark the answer in the following ways:

I. Mark (a) if the statement is definitely true

II. Mark (b) if the statement is probably true, though not definitely true.

III. Mark (c) if the conclusions is neither true nor false because the data given in the passage are inadequate.

IV. Mark (d) if the conclusion is probably false, though not definitely false.

V. Mark (e) if the conclusion is definitely false.

Note: A student must note that all these conclusions are to be arrived at in the light of what has been discussed in the passage. 

In the following passages the methodology will be discussed as to how to opt for the right option – (a, b, c, d, and e) which a student is expected to select for a given conclusion.

For the sake of the convenience of the students, each option mentioned above will be discussed and analysed in detail in the light of the passages given below.

Passage : “Now the question of the freedom of the press becomes an important question in view of the fact that the press has vast potentialities for both good and evil. The press is as much a passion rouser as it is a peace maker. In the days of discords and dissensions, it bars the door to reconciliation or at least the quarrel is prolonged beyontl its limits. Knowledge is not always good and sometimes ignorance is bliss.”

Option (a) : Definitely true – If the conclusion directly follows the statement or group of statements given in the passage, we can arrive at option (a) because the conclusion is definitely true. It is important to note that in such cases the conclusion is the direct result of the statement and no indirect inference is derived from the given statement. Let us analyse the ‘conclusions which are definitely true in the light of this rule. ”

Conclusion 1 : Press has multi-dimensional potentialities.

Analysis: It is very clearly mentioned in the passage that press possesses vast potentialities and can play different roles during both war and peace.

Conclusion 2 : Press can rouse the passions of the public.

Analysis: The author has described the press as a passion rouse as well as peacemaker.

Since both the conclusions drawn from the passage can directly be derived from the passage, hence both the conclusions are definitely true. We have not relied on any indirect inference.

Option (b) : Probably true-The word ‘probable’ means that there are chances of occuring or not occuring of an event. This option is available for testing a conclusion when it is not definitely true. In other words, it does not follow the statement directly. It is to be noted here that a conclusion is not definitely true because there exists little chance for its being wrong as well. Therefore, there, is every possibility of its swing towards truthfulness.

Conclusion 3 : It is a folly to be wise where ignorance is bliss.

Analysis : In the last line of the paragraph it is mentioned that knowledge is not always good and sometimes ignorance is bliss. It is to be noted that we can’t infer anything definite from this line because the words ‘always’ and ‘sometimes’ reduce the chance of the conclusion being definitely true or false. In the light of the rule under consideration, the conclusion derived has greater swing towards probability of being true than being false. Hence, the conclusion is probably true.

Option (c) : Data inadequate-In such kind of options, the candidates do not have relevant information to arrive at the conclusion. In other words, data contained in the passage are inadequate. As such the option (c) – data inadequate, is required to be opted for by a candidate.

Conclusion 4 : Salary of journalists should be increased to suppress their resentment

Analysis : This conclusion speaks of salary 0 journalists. Nothing about salary 0f journalists has been discussed in the passage. Therefore, additional data are required to arrive at a conclusion. Hence, we opt for option (c) – data inadequate.

Option (d) : Probably false – The criterion to opt for this option is similar to the one applied in the case of option (b) – Probably true. Whenever the conclusion is not definitely false, it is so because there exists little chance of its being true. In such cases the conclusion is said to probably false. Here the swing seems to be towards falsity and the conclusion is termed probably false.

Conclusion 5 : Knowledge is good. Analysis: Though the conclusion contradicts the statement of the passage that knowledge is not always good, yet the conclusion can’t be taken for as definitely false. All the same, the use of word ‘always’ in the statement reduces the chance of the conclusion being definitely true and there is an apparent swing towards falsity. Hence, the option (d) – probably false is correct.

Option (e) : Definitely false-The student arrives at this option when direct definite information is available to prove that the conclusion is totally contrary to the information given in the passage.

Conclusion 6 : The question about the freedom of press is not significant one.

Analysis : press is not a significant one. Now if we analyse the conclusion in the light of the information available in the passage, it will be observed that the conclusion contradicts the first line’ in the passage which reads “The question of freedom of press becomes an important question”. Therefore, the conclusion is definitely false.