Ch. 27 :- Statement And Argument : Exercise 1


✦ Directions for Q. No. 1 to 38 : In making decisions about important questions, it is desirable to distinguish between a ‘strong’ argument and a ‘weak’ argument. A ‘strong’ argument must be both important and directly related to the question. A ‘weak’ argument may not be directly related to the question and may be of minor importance or may be related to the trivial aspect of the question. Each question below is followed by two arguments, numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is ‘strong’ and which is ‘weak’.

1. Statement: Should we impart sex education in schools?
Arguments:
I. Yes, all the progressive nations do so.
II. No, we can’t impart it in a co-educational school.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
None of the arguments is supported by a clear logic.
Hence, both the arguments are weak.

2. Statement: Should there be a ban on product advertisements ?
Arguments:
I. No, it is an age of advertising. Unless your advertisement is better than.that of your other competitors, the products will not be sold.
II. Yes, the money spent on advertising is very huge and it inflates the cost of the product.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
It is a known fact that unless you create awareness through advertisements about your product, you lag behind from your competitors. Contrary to this, heavy cost on advertisements adds to your product. Hence, both the arguments are strong.

3. Statement: Should there be a ceiling on the salary of top executives of multinationals in our country ?
Arguments:
I. Yes, otherwise it would lead to unhealthy competition and comparison and our own industry would not be able to withstand that.
II. No, with the advent of liberalisation of economy, any such move would be counter-productive. Once the economy picks up, this disparity will be reduced.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Both the arguments are strong. The high salary of executives in multinational companies would definitely create unhealthy competition and consequently our companies which are not rich will be in difficulties. Secondly, such ceiling will discourage multinationals to take interest in our economy and encourage our companies.

4. Statement: Should the Government levy tax on agricultural income also?
Arguments:
I. Yes, that is the only way to fill Government’s coffer.
II. No, 80 % of our population live in rural areas.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Both the arguments are weak. The argument that Government’s coffer can be filled only with the tax on agriculture is totally irrelevant. Secondly, it can’t be said that all the 80 % rural population are poor.

5. Statement: Should public holidays be declared on demise of important national leaders?
Arguments:
I. No, such unscheduled holidays hamper national progress.
II. Yes, people would like to pay their homage to the departed soul.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Considering India’s economy, unscheduled holidaysn will hamper national progress. Hence, argument I is strong.

6. Statement: Keeping in consideration the longevity of life in India, should the age-limit for retirement in the
Government jobs be increased?

Arguments:
I. Yes, other countries have decided so long before.
II. Yes, it is the actual demand of lakhs of employees.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
The system that is successful in other countries may not necessarily succeed in our country. Hence, argument I is week. Since, it is the demand of lakhs of employees, it is justified. Hence, argument II is strong.

7. Statement: Should new universities be established in India?
Arguments:
I. No, we have not yet achieved the target of literacy.
II. No, we have to face the problems of highly educated but unemployed youths.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Both the arguments are weak. There is no relation between the establishment of universities and the achievement of the literacy target. Secondly, it appears illogical that due to establishment of more universities we shall have highly educated and unemployed youths. Hence, both the arguments are weak.j

8. Statement: Should small States be formed out of bigger States in India?
Arguments:
I. Yes, there will be greater administrative convenience.
II. No, it will be a jeopardize the national integration.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Both the arguments are strong because there will be greater administrative convenience by forming small states out of bigger states in India. Secondly, it may also lead to a danger to the national integration.

9. Statement: Should all the Government owned educational institutions be given to private sector?
Arguments:
I. Yes, there will be up gradation of educational standard in these institutions.
II. Yes, the educational standard of these institutions will decrease.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Private sector is supposed to be more disciplined and efficient than the government sector. Hence, argument I is strong.

10. Statement: Should the organisations like the UNO be abolished?
Arguments:
I. The cold war is going to an end, so there is no role of such organisations.
II. No, in the absence of these organisations, there will be a world war.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Argument I is strong because the presence of UNO ensures friendly relations among various countries. Argument II is also strong because now-a-days the prsence of UNO is felt inevitable.

11. Statement: Should there be complete ban on manufacture of fire-crackers in India?
Arguments:
I. No, this will render thousands of workers jobless.
II. Yes, the fire-cracker manufacturers use child labour to a large extent.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(e)Fire-cracker industries employ thousands of workers,
hence, ban on such industries will render thousands of workers jobless. Secondly, ban on industries is desirable because child labour practice very much exists in such industries.

12. Statement: Should the tustion fees in all post graduate courses be hiked considerably?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this will bring in some sense of seriousness among the students and will improve the quality.
II. No, this will force the meritorious poor students to stay away from the post-graduate courses.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Argument I is irrelevant. Argument II is strong because poor and deserving students will be affected by a hike in the fee.

13. Statement: Should India allow the multinationals to explore the resources available under-sea in its
Arguments:
I. vast economy zone?
Yes, India do not have enough technical and financial resources to conduct such explorations.
II. No, this will endanger the sovereign status of the country.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Only argument I is strong because India has the abundent resources but does not have technical skill for exploration. So, India should go for foreign help. Secondly, India’s sovereign status does not get affected at all by doing so.

14. Statement: Should the private companies be allowed to operate passenger train services in India ?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this will improve the quality of service in Indian Railways as it will have to face severe competition.
II. No, the private companies may not agree to operate in the non-profitable sectors.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I is strong because entry of private sector will certainly improve the services of existing Government
sector because of the healthy competition. Argument II is weak because we are here concerned with inviting the private companies in Railways only

15. Statement: Should school education be made free in India ?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this is the only way to improve the level of literacy.
II. No, it will add to the already heavy burden on the exchequer.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Argument I is not strong because only making education free does not lead to absolute literacy. Argument II is strong as it will put heavy burden on the exchequer.

16. Statement: Can Psychiatrists treat maniac permanently?
Arguments:
I. Yes, they have all types of medicines.
II. No, the instincts keep on returning off and on.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
None of the arguments is a strong argument.

17. Statement: Are marriages based on well-matched horoscopes more successful than other marriages?
Arguments:
I. Yes, there is no possibility of rifts or ups and downs as the horoscopes have already been studied well.
II. No, such marriages are rather dull.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
None of the arguments is supported by a valid logic. Hence, both the arguments are weak.

18. Statement: Is death perfect cure to the physical sufferings?
Arguments:
I. Yes, when there is no body left, how can there be any ailment.
II. No, deep physical sufferings reach the spirit and must be continuing in same intensity after death.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
None of the argument, is supported by a valid logic. Hence, both the arguments lack the valid and strong logic.

19. Statement: Are the fabulous prices demanded by the art dealers for the original paintings of old masters justified?
Arguments:
I. Yes, those are unattainable antique pieces of art, hence, worth their price for the collectors of art.
II. No, modem painters can paint as well if not better than them and for much less price.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I is strong. Fabulous prices for old master piece are demanded because of their originality and innovative hard efforts.

20. Statement: Should age of retirement be brought down?
Arguments:
I. Yes, such a decision on the part of the Government would open new job opportunities to youngsters.
II. No, people often marry late and their children don’t get settled early.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Both the arguments are strong because each of the arguments deals with the statement quite logically.

21. Statement: Should words like ‘smoking is injurious to health’ essentially appear on cigarette packs ?
Arguments:
I. Yes, it is a sort of brain-wash to make the smokers realise they are inhaling poisonous stuff.
II. No, it hampers the enjoyment of smoking.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I is strong because the smokers will be cautioned of its ill-effects by such wordings. Argument II is a weak argument as such wordings do, in no way, reduce the enjoyment of smoking.

22. Statement: Should hunting be banned?
Arguments:
I.Yes, it has been proved to be a definite environment hazard.
II. No, what will hunters do ?
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Logically, only argument I is strong.

23. Statement: Does synonym mean exactly the same?
Arguments:
I. Yes, a rich language has many words for one thing.
II. No, each so called synonym is different from the other word and if used in its place, it changes the meaning slightly.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Argument II is strong because synonyms do not have exact meaning of the given word. It is nearest in the meaning to the word.

24. Statement: Should the age for marriage for boys be increased to 30 years?
Arguments:
I. No, it is arbitrary.
II. Yes, it may solve the population problem.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Both the arguments are weak.

25. Statement: Will the newly elected members fulfil their promises ?
Arguments:
I. Yes, otherwise their very existence will be in danger.
II. No, elected members never seem to remember their promises and commitments.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Both the arguments are strong. Elected members have to face the electorates after each completion of their
terms as their existence as members is decided by people. Secondly, at the time of elections, so many commitments are made which are hardly fulfilled.

26. Statement: Is murder better than committing suicide?
Arguments:
I. Yes, getting those who are responsible for problems out of way is better than sacrificing.
II. No, taking some body’s life or one’s own life can never be right and there is always a third course to be taken.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Argument II is strong because one should not become criminal by murdering others so as to wipe out person responsible for problem.

27. Statement: Should MLAs and MPs be allowed to change parties?
Arguments:
I. Yes, every individual in a democratic set-up is free to leave or join any party any time.
II. No, they should remain faithful to the party which nominated them as its candidates.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Both the arguments are strong. Each of the argument is supported by a valid logic.

28. Statement: Married persons suffer less from psychological illness as compared to the single person.
Arguments:
I. Emotions in the case of married persons find adequate expression.
II. Married partners help each other.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Both the arguments are strong as each of them is supported by a strong logic.

29. Statement: Do children adopted from poor families love their new rich parents like their own poor ones ?
Arguments :
I.Yes, because they are loved, cared for and provided with comforts of life.
II. No, because in the criminal world, they become selfish and hard-boiled.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
If poor children are loved, cared for and provided with comforts of life, they will definitely respond strongly and positively in terms of respect to their parents. Argument II is not strong.

30. Statement: Do Scientists believe in religion?
Arguments :
I. Yes, because Science as a profession does not come in the way of faith.
II. No, because religion and faith don’t go together.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I is strong because profession and religion are altogether different. Argument II is irrelevant.

31. Statement: Should competitive examinations for selecting candidates for job consist thorough objective test only?
Arguments :
I. Yes, the assessment of objective test is reliable.
II. No, the number of questions to be answered is always very large.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
The second argument that the number of questions to be answered is always very large is a very generalised. But the first argument that the assessment of objective test is reliable is a strong argument.

32. Statement: Should strikes in the field of education be banned ?
Arguments :
I. Yes, it is against professional ethics.
II. Yes, it affects the students adversely.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Argument II is strong. Strike is against the professional ethics is weak argument, but it affects the students adversely, is strong one.

33. Statement: Should jobs be linked with academic degrees and diplomas?
Arguments :
I. No, a very large number of persons with meagre academic qualificationn will apply.
II. No, importance of higher education will be diminished.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Argument II is strong as it logically supports the statement.

34. Statement: Should English be the medium of instruction for higher education in India?
Arguments:
I. Yes, even in advanced countries like UK and USA, the medium of instruction is English for higher education.
II. Yes, English is much widely spoken language in the world today.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Anything successful in other countries may not succeed in India. However, since English is much widely spoken
language in the world today and hence, should be adopted, is a strong idea. Hence, argument II is the strong argument.

35. Statement: Should religion be taught in our schools?
Arguments:
I. No, ours is a secular State.
II. Yes, teaching religion helps inculcate moral values among children,
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
The first argument is not related directly to the statement. But second argument that teaching religion helps to inclucate moral values among children is strong. Hence, the argument II is strong.

36. Statement: Will the Cauvery river water dispute be settled down at last?
Arguments:
I. Yes, the politicians of Kamataka and Tamil Nadu will come to some satisfactory political settlement.
II. No, both the States have their own interests, hence the dispute will be prolonged.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
None of the argument is strong because both the arguments are based on hypothetical facts.

37. Statement: Is India going’ to have elections in near future?
Arguments:
I. Yes, some of the political parties are creating a situation that demands elections.
II. No, our Prime Minister is a strong man, has a good support and will complete his term.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
None of the argument is strong.

38. Statement: Does President’s rule in a State improve law and order in the disturbed areas?
Arguments:
I. Yes, the Chief Minister does not know how to cope with the deteriorating conditions of law and order.
II. No, because the President is not physically present there.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Both the arguments are weak. Argument I is weak as it is totally hypothetical. Argument II is irrelevant.