Ch. 27 :- Statement And Argument : Exercise 2


✦ Directions for Q. No. 1 to 15 :In making decisions about important questions, it is desirable to distinguish between a ‘strong’ argument and a ‘weak’ argument. A ‘strong’ argument must be both important and directly related to the question. A ‘weak’ argument may not be directly related to the question and may be of minor importance or may be related to the trivial aspect of the question. Each question below is followed by two arguments, numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is ‘strong’ and which is ‘weak’.

1. Statement: Can the young enjoy the old movies?
Arguments:
I. Yes, the movies of these days have no proper story.
II. No, the old movies lack the glamour and fastness of modem movies.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Both the arguments are weak.

2. Statement: Should adulteration in foodstuff be considered serious crime?
Arguments:
I. Yes, the stuff may cause ill-health and sometimes result in the death of the poor victims.
II.. No, the things that are mixed with food stuff are not really poisonous.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I is strong because adulteration may cause ill-health and death of poor victims.

3. Statement: Should private sector be permitted to operate telephone services?
Arguments:
I. Yes, they are operating in advanced Western Countries.
II. No, it is risky to put them in private hands.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)
None of the arguments, is strong. Argument I is weak because if it is operating successfully in Western Countries, it may not necessarily succeed in India i.e., based on example. Argument II is irrelevant.

4. Statement: Should so much money be spent on games and sports?
Arguments:
I. Yes, we are a rich nation and can easily spare any amount of money for games and sports.
II. No, our teams are unable to put up a good show in international competitions.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)
None of the arguments is strong. Spending money just because of being rich is not a valid reason. Argument II is weak because it is absolutely illogical that just because of poor performance in international competitions, we should not finance games and sports.

5. Statement: Are educational institutions responsible for unrest among the youth ?
Arguments:
I. Yes, there is no discipline in educational institutions.
II. No, there is no disciplinary problem in educational institutions.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)
None of the argument strongly and logically supports the statement.

6. Statement: Should political parties be banned?
Arguments:
I. Yes, it is necessary to teach a lesson to the politicians.
II. No, it will lead to an end of democracy.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Only argument II is strong because ban on political parties will definitely lead to an end of democracy.

7. Statement:Should coal engines be replaced by electric engines in trains?
Arguments:
I. Yes, coal engines cause a lot of pollution.
II. No, India does not produce enough electricity to fulfil even the domestic needs.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Both the arguments are logical and directly related to the statement, and hence are strong arguments.

8. Statement: Do discussions lead to solutions of disputes?
Arguments:
I. Yes, all the pros and cons are weighed in their proper perspectives and the right solution is reached.
II. No, no one is really convinced.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I is strong as it provides a clear logic and is directly related to statement. Argument II is without logic and hence, is a weak argument.

9.Statement: Is the verdict of a judge always just and the right one?
Arguments:
I. Yes, the judges are very learned and intelligent.
II. No, tricky lawyer and false evidence often twist the case and mislead the judge.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Verdict of judge depends on evidences and pleading of advocate, hence argument I is weak. Argument II is strong as false evidence can mislead the judge.

10. Statement: Do thin clothes suit people who are over-weight?
Arguments:
I. Yes, they cling to wearer making one look less fat.
II. No, in thin clothes bulges become more prominent.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Both the arguments are strong.

11. Statement: Is investment of money in insurance policies a wise step?
Arguments:
I. Yes, it ensures security and covers risks.
II. No, by the time the policy matures,the value of money falls down considerably.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I is strong because insurance is meant to cover the risk and promotes savings. Argument II lacks clear logic.

12. Statement: Should parents play with their children?
Arguments:
I. Yes, it helps in building up a healthy and much needed companionship between children and parents.
II. No, children treat their parents like equals and there is no distance left.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I is strong because a close companionship bridges the gap between parents and children. Argument II is not supported by a positive logical aspect of the statement and hence, is a weak argument.

13. Statement: Should cottage industries be encouraged in rural areas?
Arguments:
I. Yes, rural people are creative.
II. Yes, this would help to solve the problem of unemployment to some extent.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Argument II is strong as cottage industries will definitely solve the problem of unemployment in rural areas. Argument I is not logical.

14. Statement: Do commoners, who marry distinguished persons, have a happy life?
Arguments:
I. Yes, they get so much honour and respect.
II. No, their spouse and in-laws don’t respect them sufficiently and treat them with contempt.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Both the arguments are not strong because both the arguments don’t contain any logic.

15. Statement: Should little children be loaded with such heavy school bags?
Arguments:
I. Yes, a heavy bag means more knowledge.
II. No, heavy school bags spoil the posture of the children.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)
None of the arguments is strong. Argument I is weak because heavy bag is not related at all with more knowledge. Argument II is weak because heavy bag is not also related with the posture of the children.

✦ Directions for Q. No. 16 to 25 : In making decisions about important questions, it is desirable to be able to distinguish between strong and weak arguments. ‘Strong’ arguments are those which are both important and directely related to the question. Weak’ arguments are those which are of minor importance and also may not be directly related to the question or may be related to a trivial aspect of the question. Each question below is followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the argument is a ‘strong’ argument and which is a ‘weak’ argument.

16. Statement: Should all beggers on the roads in the big cities in India be forcibly sent to villages?
Arguments:
I. No, this is grossly unfair and these people will die of hunger if they are sent to villages.
II. Yes, these people create a, bad impression of our country in the eyes of the foreigners who visit our country and hence should be removed.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)
The problems of begging can’t be solved by sending them to villages. Therefore, argument I seems to be strong.

17. Statement: Should all the criminals convicted for committing murder be awarded capital punishment?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this will be a significant step towards reducing cases of murders in future.
II. No, nobody has the right to take any person’s life irrespective of the acts of such individuals.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I appears to be strong.

18. Statement: Should all professional colleges in India be encouraged to run their own courses without affiliations to any university ?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this is the only way to create more opportunities for those who seek professional training.
II. No, this will dilute the quality of professional training as all such colleges may not be equipped to conduct such courses.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)
The presence of the term ‘only’ in the argument I makes it invalid. Argument II is also invalid.

19. Statement: Should there be a maximum ceiling imposed on the earnings of an individual in an organisation?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this will help” – equitable distribution of earning to all the employees.
II. No, the organization should have free hand to decide the pay packets of its employees.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)
None of the arguments is strong.

20. Statement: Should there be a compulsory military training for each college, student in India?
Arguments:
I. No, this goes against the basic democratic right of an individual to choose his/her own programme.
II. Yes, this is the only way to build a strong and powerful nation.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I appears to be strong.

21. Statement: Should all those passed out from Government run colleges and desirous of settling abroad be asked to pay back the cost of their education to the Government?
Arguments:
I. Yes, such students who study on the resources of the exchequer should be discouraged to leave the country.
II. No, every citizen has right to select their place of further study or work and therefore, such a condition is unjustitied.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I is strong in view of facts given in the statement.

22. Statement: Should India support all the international policies of USA?
Arguments :
I. No, many other powerful countries don’t support the same.
II. Yes, this is the only way to gain USA developmental funds.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Argument I states the example of other countries, and hence is not strong. Argument II is not strong because of the use of the word only.

23. Statement: Should there be a complete ban on use of pesticides in agricultural sector?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this is the only way to save the underground water from getting polluted with such dangerous chemicals.
II. No, this will adversely affect the agricultural production and the pests will damage the crops.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)
The use of the word only makes the argument weak. Argument II is the strong by virtue of its relevance of the fact given in the question.

24. Statement: Should the labour reforms be immediately introduced in India?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this will help increase the productivity in all the sectors in general and in the public sector in particular.
II. No, many other countries have not implemented this so far.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I is strong. Argument II is based on an example.

25. Statement: Should the subsidy on kerosene be immediately increased further?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this will bring considerable relief to the poorer section of the society as they will be the major beneficiary.
II. No, our economy is otherwise in a difficult stage and it will not be able to withstand any further burden on it.
(a) if only argument I is strong,
(b) if only argument II is strong,
(c) if either I or II are strong,
(d) if neither I nor II is strong,
(e) if both I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Only argument II seems to be strong.

✦ Directions for Q. No. 26 to 37 : In making decisions about important questions, it is desirable to be able to distinguish between ‘strong’ arguments and ‘weak’ arguments. ‘Strong’ arguments are those which are both important and directly related to the question. Weak’ arguments are those which are of minor importance and also may not be directly related to the question or may be related to a trivial aspect of the question.

Each question below is followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the argument is a ‘strong’ argument and which is a ‘weak’ argument.

26. Statement : Should India stop exploring presence of hydrocarbons in both onshare and offshore locations?
Arguments:
I. Yes, these leads to wastage of precious resources as the hydrocarbon reserves are scanty.
II. No, we must try to become less dependent on foreign countries for our energy needs by exploring all possibilities.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(c)
Either I or II is strong.

27. Statement: I Should there be a complete ban on sale of soft drinks within the premises Of all the schools in India?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this will considerably decrease, the consumption of such drinks by the school children, as these contain harmful chemicals.
II. No, the authorities ‘do not have right to impose such restrictions in a democratic country.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Argument I is strong because soft drinks contain some harmful chemicals which are harmful to school
children. But argument II is not strong because it is not the meaning of the democratic country that we cannot ban on wrong things.

28. Statement: Should there be a complete ban on use of chemical pesticides in the agricultural fields?
Arguments:
I. No, the crops will get damaged by the , pests as almost each crop is attacked by pests during its life cycle.
II. Yes, this pollutes the environment, and also contaminates ground water, instead biological pesticides should be used.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Arguments I and II, both are strong. If there is no ban on the use of pesticides, the whole crop will be damaged by pests and if there is ban the use of pesticides, then it will pollute the environment.

29. Statement: Should there be only one entrance test for all the medical colleges-both Government and Private-in India?
Arguments:
I. No, each college has unique requirements and decisions on admissions should be left to the concerned colleges.
II. Yes, this will bring in uniformity in the standard of students at the time of admissions and will reduce multiplicity.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Only argument II is strong because by only one entrance test will be brought, a uniformity in the standard of students which is necessary.

30. Statement: Should the maintenance of all roads in the big cities be entrusted to private companies?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this is the only way to ensure good conditions of the roads throughout the year.
II. No, the private companies are not capable of maintaining all the roads.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Neither argument I nor II is strong.

31. Statement: Should there be only one bank in the country ?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this will substantially reduce the operational costs.
II. No, this will lead to monopoly and the customers’ interest will be adversely affected.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(b)

32. Statement: Should the private companies be allowed to build their own railway tracks and run passenger and goods trains in India ?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this will benefit the passengers and other customers as they will get better service at cheaper rates.
II. No, the private companies will compromise on safely aspects and hence should not be allowed.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)

33. Statement: Should the Government provide books to all the students up to Xth standard at no cost in the schools across India ?
Arguments:
I. No, rich people will unduly get benefitted by this as they otherwise can afford to buy books for their children.
II. Yes, this will considerably improve the level of education and also will reduce school dropont rates.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(d)

34. Statement: Should there be only one rate of income tax for all tax paying individual with different income levels?
Arguments:
I. No, those who earn more should pay income tax at higher rates as they have more disposable income at their hands.
II. Yes, this will considerably reduce the complexities in processing the income tax returns filed by the individuals.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)

35. Statement: Should all those who are caught using unfair means during examinations be arrested and imprisoned?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this is a very serious crime and the offenders should be punished accordingly.
II. No, they should be warned and should be debarred from appearing in such examinations for the next three years.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(b)

36. Statement: Should there be a common syllabus for a particular degree course in all the universities across India?
Arguments:
I. Yes, this will being in uniformity in the degrees offered by various universities in India.
II. No, this is just not practicable and there is no need for this.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(e)

37. Statement: Should India stop spending huge sums of money for producing nuclear weapons?
Arguments:
I. No, we need to equip ourselves with considerable level of nuclear weapons to ward off any threat from other nations.
II. Yes, instead the money should be spent on education and developing infrastructural facilities to boost our economy.
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) if either argument I or II is strong
(d) if neither argument I nor II is strong
(e) if both arguments I and II are strong

View Answer
Ans.(a)