Ch. 27 :- Statement And Argument : Introduction & Formula


✦ Directions : Study the following instructions carefully and then answer the questions that follow.
In making decisions about important questions it is desirable to be able to distinguish between ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ arguments so far as they relate to the questions. ‘Weak’ arguments may not be directly related to the question and may be of minor importance or may .be related. to the trivial aspect of the question. Each question below IS followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a ‘strong’ argument and which is a ‘weak’ argument.

Give your answer as :
(a) if only argument I is strong
(b) if only argument II is strong
(c) I either I or II is strong
(d) I neither I nor II is strong
(e) if both I and II are strong

Ex. 1. Statement: Should school education be made free in India?
Arguments:
1. Yes, this is the only way to improve the level of literacy.
II. No, it will add to the already heavy burden on the exchequer.

Sol.: Argument I is not strong because word ‘only’ makes the argument weak as it is not the only real and practical solution to improve the level of literacy. Argument II is strong as it describes the practical problem which may arise out of the decision of making education free in India. Hence, (b) is the correct answer.

Ex. 2. Statement: Should there be complete ban on manufacture of fire crackers in India?
Arguments:
I. No, this will render thousands of workers jobless.
II. Yes, the fire cracker manufacturers use child labour to a large extent.

Sol.: Both the arguments refer to the practical consequences of the action mentioned in the statement and hence, are strong. Thus; (e) is the correct answer.

Ex. 3. Statement: Should young entrepreneurs be encouraged ?
Arguments:
I. Yes, they will help in the industrial development of the country.
II. Yes, they will reduce the burden on the employment market.

Sol.: It is very clear that encouragement to the young entrepreneurs will open up the fields for setting up .of new industries. Therefore, It Will help in industrial development consequently, more job opportunities will be created. Thus, both the arguments are strong. Hence,(e) is the correct answer.

Ex. 4. Statement: Should luxury hotels be banned in India?
Arguments:
I. Yes, these are places from where international criminals operate.
II. No, affluent foreign tourists will have no place to stay.

Sol.: The luxury hotels are symbols of country’s development and a place for staying the affluent foreign tourists. So, argument II is a strong one. Argument I is a weak argument because ban on luxury hotels is not a way to end the international criminals.

Ex. 5. Statement: Should election expenses to Central and State legislatures be met by the Government?
Arguments:
I. Yes, it will put an end to political corruption.
II. No, it is not good in any country.

Sol.: Argument I is strong one as this decision will help to eliminate political corruption. Argument II does not give any logic, hence, is a weak argument. Therefore, (a) is the correct answer.