Ch-23 :- Statement And Assumptions :- Introduction & Formula


Directions for Q. No. 1 to 6 :
In each of the questions below is given a statement followed by assumptions numbered I and II. Consider the statement and decide which of the given assumptions is implicit.
Give your answer as
(a) if only assumption I is implicit
(b) if only assumption II is implicit
(c) if either I or II is implicit
(d) if neither I nor II is implicit
(e) if both I and II are implicit

Ex.1
Statement:
Patient’s condition would improve after this operation.
Assumptions: I. The patient can be operated upon in this condition.
II. The patient can’t be operated upon in this condition.

Sol.: It is very much implied in the statement that the patient is in a position to be operated upon. Therefore, assumption I is implicit. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.

Ex.2
Statement:
The best evidence of India’s glorious past is the growing popularity of Ayurvedic medicines in West.
Assumptions: I. Ayurvedic medicines are not popular in India.
II. Allopathic medicines are more popular in India.

Sol.: The statement given in the question states only about the place which Ayurvedic medicine had occupied in the past on account of its increasing popularity in West and this signifies neither non-popularity of Ayurvedic medicines in India nor speaks of popularity of Allopathic medicines. Hence, none of the assumptions is implicit in the statement. Hence, (d) is the correct answer.

Ex. 3.
Statement:
Most of the classical dance theme are based on stories of Gods and awatars.
Assumptions: I. Classical arts maintain their heritage by sticking to traditions.
II. New themes are not interesting.

Sol.: Stories of Gods and awatars carry the reflection of our tradition. Therefore, the statement implies that the classical art endeavours to maintain their heritage by sticking to traditions. Hence, assumption I is clearly implicit. But it is not given anywhere in the statement that new themes are not interesting. Therefore, assumption II is not implicit. Hence, (a) is the correct answer.

Ex. 4.
Statement:
The anti-reservation movement was taken up by all the States.
Assumptions: I. If one State starts a movement, it is customary for the other States to follow it.
II. A major portion of the youths and employees allover the country were not in favour of reservation.

Sol:.The anti-reservation movement could get acceptibility by all the States only because major portion of the youths and employees were not in favour of reservation. Our statement is never based on the assumption that it becomes customary for the other States to follow a movement started by one State. Therefore, only assumption II is implicit. Hence, (b) is the correct answer.

Ex. 5.
Statement:
“If you want to give any advertisement give it in newspaper ‘X’- A tells B.
Assumptions: I. B wants to publicise his products.
II. Newspaper X’ has a wide circulation.

Sol.: The word ‘if in the statement denotes that B mayor may not be willing to publicise his products. Statement further suggests that advertisement should be given in newspaper ‘X’. This means that X’ will help advertise better. In other words, newspaper ‘X’ has a wide circulation. So, only assumption II is implicit. Hence, (b) is the correct answer.

Ex. 6.

Statement: If Dinesh has finished reading the instructions, then let him begin the activities accordingly.
Assumptions: I. Dinesh would understand the instructions.
II. Dinesh is capable of performing the activities.

Sol.: The statement implies very clearly that Dinesh has been asked to begin his activities as per instructions. This means that Dinesh would understand the instructions and also is capable of performing the activities. Hence, both the assumptions are implicit, and thus the correct answer is (e).

=> Directions for Q. No.7 to 9 :In each of the questions below is given a statement followed by three assumptions numbered I, II, and III. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the assumptions and then decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement. Mark your answers accordingly

Ex. 7.
Statement:
Go by aeroplane to reach Bangalore from Mumbai quickly.
Assumptions: I. Mumbai and Bangalore are connected by aeroplane services.
II. There is no other means of going from Mumbai to Bangalore.

Sol.: It is clear that assumption I is implicit in the statement and assumption II is not implicit in the statement. In fact, the state meet implies that there are other means to reach Bangalore from Mumbai but they take more time as compared to the time taken by aeroplane. Therefore, (a) is the correct answer.

Ex. 8.
Statement:
Prakash decided to get the railway reservation in April for the journey he wants to make in July to Mumbai.
Assumptions: I. The railways issue reservation three months in advance.
II. There are more than one train to Mumbai.
III. There will be vacancy in the desire class.
(a) Only II and III are implicit
(b) Only I is implicit
(c) All are implicit
(d) Only I and II are implicit
(e) None of the above

Sol.: In the statement, it is given that Prakash has decided to get reservation three months in advance. This clearly implies that there exists a provision for getting seat/berth reservations three months in advance. Hence. assumption I is implicit. But nothing in the statement has been given about number of trains and availability 0f seats in desired class. Hence, assumption II and III do not follow, therefore, (b) is the correct answer.

Ex. 9.

Statement: Radha wrote second letter to her father after two months as she did not receive any reply to the first letter.
Assumptions: I. Radha’s father did not receive the letter.
II. The letter generally reaches within a week.
III. Her father promptly sends reply to her letters.
(a) Only II and III are implicit
(b) Only III is implicit
(c) None is implicit
(d) Only I and III are implicit
(e) None of the above

Sol.: It can’t be said definitely that Radha’s father did not receive the letter and there may be other reasons for not responding to the letter immediately. Time limit for letter has not been given anywhere in the statement. Hence, assumptions I and II are not implicit. Since her father use to respond her promptly, therefore, after having waited, she had written to her father again. Hence, assumption II is implicit. Therefore, (b) is the correct answer.