Ch. 24 :- Statement And Conclusion : Exercise 1


✦ Directions for Q. No. 1 to 6 : In each of the questions given below, one or more statement (s) is/are followed by inferential conclusions. The conclusion, which can be derived without supposing anything else, i.e., without adding anything extra to the statement (s), isyour answer.

1. Statement: The Education Secretary said that it was extremely necessary that the professional researchers a long with practicing school teachers conduct the practical research.
Conclusions:
(a) Practicing teachers know the techniques of research.
(b) Professional researchers are quite aware of the problems related to the school education.
(c) Educational Secretary was speaking to the school students.
(d) There is a communication gap between researchers and the practicing school teachers.
(e) School education is quite a specialised field and so long as teacher is not trained, the standard of education can’t be qualitatively better.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Clearly, the statement gives the sense that if practicing school teachers accompany professional researcher, then teachers will be benefitted by the expertise. of professionals. As a result, the standard of education will be improved.

2. Statement: Vehicular source contributes 60% to the total pollution level of Delhi, as the Rajya Sabha was informed today.
Conclusions:
(a) The court has ordered that the main source of pollution should be identified.
(b) The problem of pollution is high in the agenda of the House.
(c) In the other cities also, vehicular source contributes around the same percentage level of pollution.
(d) This matter was raised first in the Lok Sabha.
(e) Not many towns in India face the problem of pollution.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Problem of pollution was discussed in the Rajya Sabha because it was getting priority on the agenda of the House.

3. Statement: PVC shoe producers union has welcomed the announcement of the relief on production surcharge from Rs SO per pair to Rs 75 per pair.
Conclusions:
(a) All PVC shoe producers are members of this union.
(b) Relief on production surcharge to Rs SO on every pair of shoes, had been given only recently.
(c) Union had demanded an increase in relief.
(d) Government will collect more production surcharge.
(e) Other producers will also demand a relief on production surcharge.

View Answer
Ans.(c)
Only conclusion (c) follows because relief on production surcharge follows a demand for the same by union.

4. Statement: There are chances of hike in the electricity tariff soon. This proposal will bring about a sharp increase for the industrial consumers and marginal increase for the domestic consumers.
Conclusions:
(a) At present there is a disparity in the electricity tariff between the domestic and the industrial consumers.
(b) Industrial consumers consume more electricity than the domestic users.
(c) Consumption of electricity by the industrial consumers is comparatively lower than the domestic users.
(d) After this hike, the electricity board, will start making profit.
(e) If. this proposal is accepted, then industrial output will get positively affected.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
As given in the statement, there is different treatment for industrial consumers and domestic consumers. It is
because of only that industrial consumers consume more electricity than the domestic users.

5. Statement:State Government imposes a monthly tax on the salary of all the employees. The tax amount varies according to the income slab. The Central Government also imposes tax on the same income which is known as the income tax. This is against the theory of taxation.
Conclusions:
(a) A regular collection, irrespective of the income slab, by the Central Government is the income tax.
(b) The Central Government should not collect any tax on income.
(c) Income tax should not vary according to the income slabs.
(d) Tax should be imposed only once on an individual.
(e) The State Government should not impose any tax on income.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Only conclusion (d) follows as tax should be imposed only once on an individual.

6. Statement: A forest has as many Sandal trees as has Ashoka trees. Three-fourths of the trees are old and half of the trees are at the flowering stage.
Conclusions:
(a) All Ashoka trees are at the flowering stage.
(b) All sandal trees are at the flowerin stage.
(c) At least one-half of the Ashoka trees are old.
(d) One half of the Sandal trees are at the flowering stage.
(e) None of the above.

View Answer
Ans.(c)
Suppose the numbers of Sandal trees and Ashoka trees are 50 each. Therefore, total number of trees will be 100. Out of which 75 trees are old. Hence, it is confirmed that at least one-half of the Ashoka trees are old.

✦ Directions for Q. No. 7 to 9 :In each of the question below are given certain statements followed by some conclusions. Choose the conclusion which. follows from the given statements.
7. Statements:
1. Only students can participate in the race.
2. Some participants in the race are females.
3. All female participants in the race are invited for coaching.
Conclusions:
(a) All participants in the race are invited for coaching.
(b) All participants in the race are males.
(c) All students are invited for coaching.
(d) All the participants in the race are students.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
It is given in the statement 1 that only students can participate in the race. Hence, it directly implies that all participants in the race will be students.

8. Statements:
1. Shyam is not the father of Hari.
2. Hari is the son of Suresh.
3. Suresh has three sons.
Conclusions:
(a) Shyam is the son of Suresh.
(b) Hari is the brother of Shyam.
(c) Suresh is the father of Hari.
(d) Shyam has no children.

View Answer
Ans.(c)
From statement 2, it is clear that Suresh is the father of Hari.

9. Statements:
1. None but the rich can afford- air travel.
2. Some of those who travel by air become sick.
3. Some of those who become sick require treatment.
Conclusions:
(a) All the rich persons travel by air.
(b) Those who travel by air become sick.
(c) All the rich persons become sick.
(d) All those who travel by air are rich.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
From statement 1, it is clear that all those who travel by air are rich.

✦ Directions for Q. No. 10 to 27 : In each of the questions below a statement is given followed by ‘two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the statement to be true. Read both the conclusions and decide which of the two or both follow from the given statement.

10. Statement: The nation ‘X’ faced the increased international opposition due to its decision of performing eight nuclear explosions.
Conclusions:
I. The citizens of the nation have favoured the decision.
II. Some powerful nations don’t want that others may become powerful.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
Nuclear explosion is not the result of the favoured by the citizens. Hence, conclusion I does not follow. However,
increase in the international opposition is due to the fact that some powerful nations don’t want that others may become powerful.

11. Statement : The Chief Minister emphasised the point that the Government will try its best for the development of farmers and rural poor.
Conclusions:
I. The former government had not tried seriously for the development of these people.
II. This government will not try seriously for the development of urban poor.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
From the commitment of the present Government, it can’t be concluded that the Former Government did not do anything serious’ about the development nor does it means that present Government will not do anything for the development of other sectors, hence, none of the conclusion follows.

12. Statement: In India, emphasis should be given more to agriculture, engineering and technological fields rather than on basic and pure science.
Conclusions :
I. India has achieved sufficient development in the field of basic and pure science.
II. In the past, the production sector of economy was neglected.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Neither of the conclusion definitely follows from the statement because it can’t be concluded from the statement that India has achieved sufficient development in the field of basic and pure sciences nor does the statement means that production sector in the past remained neglected.

13. Statement: The majority of Indian labourers belong to unorganised sector and most of them earn very low.
Conclusions:
I. The labourers belonging to organised sector have better benefits and stability.
II. Some labourers belonging to unorganised sector have regular and certain income.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
It is given in the- statement that most of the labourers belonging to unorganised sector earn very low and uncertain income, it means that there are some labourers who earn regular and certain income. Hence, conclusion (b), definitely follows from the statement.

14. Statement: The multinational fast food chains have started their operation in India after facing many problems but Association of Farmers are ready for competition.
Conclusions:
I. Association of Farmers are not supporting modernisation.
II. Association of Farmers are not ready for competition with the multinational companies.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Conclusion I.i,s totally unrelated to the statement and conclusion II is contrary to the statement. Hence, none of the conclusions follows.

15. Statement: Company can understand the problems of its customers by direct marketing where it gets a chance to correct those problems. Thus the customer becomes a reliable buyer.
Conclusions:
I. Responsible companies profit by direct marketing.
II. Direct marketing is the only key to succeed in business.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
The word ‘only’ in conclusion II makes it doubtful. Conclusion’ I is direct result of the statement, as statement speaks of the merits of direct marketing.

16. Statement: company X’ has a record in making cameras with quality and modernisation to ensure that you are losing not even a single shot despite bad weather.
Conclusions:
I. No other company has any recognition in camera industry.
II. Any common man can take good photographs using camera X’.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Conclusion I,does not follow because companies other than X’ may also have recognition in camera industry. Conclusion II does not follow because statement speaks of the quality of camera, not of the cameraman. Hence, none of the conclusions follows.

17. Statement: Though in terms of number of schools, the educational system has very much expanded but most of
them are not sufficiently equipped and are not able to touch the high water mark in education.
Conclusions:
I. We should provide good teachers and equipments to existing schools now onwards.
II. Now, it is not necessary to open new schools.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Conclusion I follows because opening a number of school will not serve the very purpose of education unless these schools are provided with good teachers and equipments. Conclusion II does not follow as it is not the right solution of the problem.

18. Statement: The top management has asked the four managers either to resign by tomorrow or face forcible ejection. Three of them have resigned till this evening.
Conclusions:
I. The managers who did not’ resign yesterday will resign tomorrow.
II. The management will terminate the service of one manager.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(c)
In view of the top management orders, either the remaining managers will resign or the management will terminate the services of one manager. Hence, either I or II follows.

19. Statement:Our security investments carry market risk. Consult your investment advisor or agent before investing.
Conclusions:
I. One should not invest in securities.
II. The investment advisor calculates the market risk with certainty.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
The investment consultants are acquainted with the market risks. Therefore, it is advisable to consult them before investing your money in securities.

20. Statement: In diabetes, there is an excess of sugar in the body. Our body needs sugar for energy. The quantity of sugar in excess of body’s requirement is excreted through urine.
Conclusions:
I. The excessive consumption of sugar is likely to lead to diabetes.
II. Consumption of sugar should be avoided.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(a)
Avoiding consumption of sugar is not the right approach to avoid diabetes. Hence, conclusion II does
not follow. However, in the light of the statement, conclusion I follows as excessive sugar is the most likely a cause of diabetes.

21. Statement: Today out of the world population of several thousand million, the majority of men have to live under Governments which refuse them personal liberty and the right to dissent.
Conclusions:
I. People are indifferent to personal liberty and right to dissent.
II. People desire personal liberty and right to dissent.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(b)
It is clear from the statement that people desire personal liberty and right to dissent.

22. Statement: He emphasised the need to replace the present training programme by other methods which will bring out the real merit of the managers.
Conclusions:
I. It is important to bring out the real merit of the managers.
II. The present training programme does not bring out the real merit of the managers.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Both the conclusions follow from the statement. Conclusion I is the direct result of the statement. Conclusion II follows because as in the given statement, there is a need to replace present system with the new one.

23. Statement : The greatest need in India today is not for sophisticated gadgets but for programmes which will provide employment to a large number of people.
Conclusions:
I. There is an adequate number of sophisticated gadgets in India.
II. Emphasis is being laid on procuring sophisticated gadgets.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
The statement says that greatest need in India is not for sophisticated gadgets but for programmes, but this doesnot mean that there is an adequate number of sophisticated gadgets. Secondly, there is a need for programmes but it cannot be concluded that emphasis is being laid on procuring sophisticated gadgets. Hence, none of the conclusions follows.

24. Statement : Company X’ has marked its product; Go ahead and purchase it, if price and quality are your considerations.
Conclusions:
I. The product must be good in quality.
II. The price of the product must be reasonable.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
It is clear from the statement that a product of company ‘X’ has good quality and is available at a reasonable price. Hence, both the conclusions follow.

25. Statement : In case of the outstanding candidates, the condition of previous experience of social work may be waived by the Admission Committee for MA (Social work).
Conclusions:
I. Some of the students for MA (Social work) will have previous experience of social work.
II. Some of the students for MA (Social work) will not have previous experience of social work.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Both the conclusions follow. The waiver is incorporated because some of the students for MA will have previous experience and some of the students will not have previous experience of social work.

26. Statement : It is almost impossible to survive and prosper in this world without sacrificing Ethics and Morality.
Conclusions:
I. World appreciates some concepts but may not uphold it.
II. Concept of Ethics and Morality are not practicable in life.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(e)
Conclusions I and II convey almost the same meaning that principles related to Ethics and Morality seem to be good but are not practicable in real life. Hence, both the conclusions follow.

27. Statement : Any student, who does not behave properly while in the school, brings bad name to himself and also to the school.
Conclusions:
I. Such students should be removed from the school.
II. Strict discipline does not improve behaviour of the students.
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows.
(c) If either I or II follows.
(d) If neither I nor II follows.
(e) If both conclusions I and II follow.

View Answer
Ans.(d)
Conclusion I does not follow because removal of an indisciplined student does not provide a reasonable solution to the problem. Conclusion II is not related with the statement. Hence, both the conclusions don’t follow.